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Hypothesis on the Origin of the Universe Cosmological Structure of Inside Out Space

The story of the birth of the universe (my original hypothesis) 

Cosmic Black Hole Hypothesis; Structural Model of the Universe with a Giant  CoreThe answer except the Big Bang .→Japanese edition 日本語版

Last updated 2023/10/01 S.Aada First edition around 2012  Reason for updating: Incorporation of new gravity theory  

This page is a mechanical translation of the Japanese page by "Google Translate". If you have any questions about the text, please refer to the original Japanese text. Or ask your question in the comments


←   returns to the top page.        We are observers



 This is the table of contents.  This update incorporates a new theory of gravity.  Is that correct?
0. Outline of this thesis     1. Basic theory     2. Standing position of this thesis  
3.  Observation facts and main interpretation     4. Law of conservation of mass and energy
5.Illustration  of the mechanism by which space is closed and reversed    
6. Conclusion . The inside of a black holeis the same as our universe.

This paper consists of this page that summarizes the general theory, and pages that explain detailed examples individually.



Outline of this paper 

 

This thesis is a cosmology that I advocate, and it is a cosmology that is completely paradoxical to the currently mainstream "Big Bang cosmology." It is originally set in a vast space called "external space," an area that is impossible for us to observe . The gigantic "cosmic black hole" created there becomes the base of our universe. Our universe is assumed to be a small part of ``space and many celestial bodies'' that are in the process of falling within this Schwarzschild radius.

There, space is inverted and the central core extends equidistantly throughout the entire 360° sky. And as if to cover it up, an ``event horizon'' of absolute zero, pitch black, and a redshift of ∞ envelops our universe. The mechanism by which space inverts and envelops our universe in this way is explained in detail in ` `5. Illustration of the mechanism by which space closes and inverts .'' 


Furthermore, the black hole's core is evenly distributed throughout the sky at equal distances from the observer's perspective, so the gravity is balanced and there is no gravity. Furthermore, because the spatial structure is closer to the central core, the farther away the object is, the slower the time speed is, and therefore the light from the distant object is red-shifted.

The cosmic ⒉7K background radiation is the afterglow of the 3000K blackbody radiation from outer space just before space closes. Large spaces have the ability to accumulate large amounts of light energy. Due to its accumulation and the large time delay in space (approximately 1/1000), and the time it took for it to reach us from a distance of approximately 14 billion years, it is still in a state in which the wavelength has been extended approximately 1000 times (approximately 2.7K) as cosmic background radiation. It arrives via blackbody radiation).

In addition, dark matter, a source of gravity that is unknown but is believed to exist, is a combination of anti-antimatter (electron-positron combination, proton-antiproton combination, etc.) produced in large quantities in external space. claims to be its true identity.
For more details, please refer to the detailed explanation page → The true nature of dark matter

Furthermore, in this paper, a gravitational field is a space with a slow time velocity, and a space subject to gravitational acceleration is a space with a time velocity gradient. It is assumed that the time velocity gradient causes a change in the random momentum vector of the energy within the material, generating thrust. In other words, in a space with uniform time velocity, the random momentum vectors inside the material cancel each other out, and no momentum appears outside. However, in a space with a time velocity gradient, the momentum vector is bent toward a space with a large time delay, so the total momentum vector cannot be completely canceled. As a result, the material develops momentum in the direction of the time velocity gradient. We argue that this is the true nature of gravitational attraction and gravitational acceleration.

This theory can rationally explain almost all observed facts in the universe → ( See 3.  Observational facts and their interpretation in the main theory)

These are all delusional claims made by the owner. Almost nothing has been proven, so please take this with a grain of salt! Don't worry, no one will believe you. That's more of a problem

Space-All2-eng.jpg


0-1. Structure of space
In this paper, we assume that there is a central core of enormous mass in the far reaches of the universe. It is a central core with an enormous mass that exceeds the total mass of the entire universe by many orders of magnitude. Its gravitational field bends space and time to an extreme degree, and the closed space that is turned inside out is what we perceive as the great cosmic space. In other words, the macrocosm that we perceive is "space and the celestial bodies distributed within it" that are freely falling at a constant velocity within the Schwarzschild radius of a giant black hole. And it is argued that the entire universe that we can observe is within the event horizon that envelops them. Reference → Scenery inside a black hole


0-2.  Inside-out space and our universe

An inside-out space is a space where the central core is turned inside out due to extreme space-time distortion, and it spreads across the entire sky. In other words, in the cosmic space that we perceive, the central core evenly covers the entire sky at equal distances, and we perceive it as floating in the center of that space, where gravity is canceled out. Furthermore, the central core, which exists all over the sky, is covered by the black hole's event horizon and cannot be seen.


The universe that we can observe is actually a world completely surrounded by the event horizon. This state continues from the moment an observer falls within the Schwarzschild radius of the cosmic black hole until it reaches the core. The figure below is a conceptual diagram of the inside-out space. Anyone can experience this inside-out space by falling inside the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole. perhaps


Inside-out.jpg 

Conceptual diagram of inside-out space


0-3. Inside the inside-out space

Inside the inside-out space, the entire sky is covered by the event horizon, which is pitch black and at absolute zero, with the observer at the center. All falling objects within it fall away from the observer. This is due to the spatial structure in which all directions from the observer's point of view are toward the central nucleus. Therefore, the farther away the object is, the larger the difference in gravitational potential (time-velocity ratio in this paper) and the larger the redshift. At the event horizon, the redshift becomes infinite and the time velocity becomes zero. In other words, this paper argues that this is the true nature of Hubble's law.


The gravitational gradient in this space is approximately proportional to distance at relatively short distances, and a simple Hubble's law holds true. However, as the distance increases, the nature of the gravitational field deviates from simple proportionality. Furthermore, as the distance increases, the difference in time speed becomes more influential, and the mass of the falling object gradually becomes more influential on the gravitational field of the central core. These factors combine to cause deviations in the results expected from Hubble's law. This paper argues that these are the causes of the ``deviation of observation results from Hubble's law,'' which is referred to as ``accelerated expansion of the universe.''

claim.



Closed space-6



Even though it is within the Schwarzschild radius, it does not mean that it is beyond the event horizon. The event horizon is in principle unattainable. No matter how far the fall observer goes, he or she is outside the `` cosmic black hole's event horizon . '' In the above figure, if the falling observer falls beyond the Schwarzschild radius, space will turn inside out, and the entire sky will become a closed space with the self-proclaimed horizon as the central core of the cosmic black hole. The location is definitely outside the cosmic black hole's event horizon, " but it is an isolated, closed space surrounded by that event horizon. The event horizon absorbs all radiation, and since it is a one-way street and no radiation comes out, it is at absolute zero. Surrounded by this, our outer space became pitch black and cooled to near absolute zero.


0-4. Zero gravity space within the Schwarzschild radius

In upside-down space, from the perspective of a falling observer, the cores of cosmic black holes exist equidistantly throughout the sky, so gravity is balanced and a state of weightlessness (expressed as zero time velocity gradient in this paper) occurs. The object called the "falling observer" is accelerated by the gravity of the central core up to the Schwarzschild radius, after which it moves at a constant velocity due to inertia. This theoretical setting protects the law of conservation of mass and energy throughout the universe.


0-5. Changes in scenery due to continued fall of our outer space

Since we have already acquired a large falling velocity in the process of falling to the Schwarzschild radius, the distance to the central core is decreasing at a constant speed. This is observed as the farthest event horizon approaches us at a constant speed, or in other words, the size of the universe is shrinking. It remains equidistant from distant galaxies, but as the event horizon approaches, its redshift increases and it essentially disappears from the most distant galaxies. By the way, in a space where the time speed is 1 / n, the distance is also / n. The speed of light is also 1/n.


0-6. Falling speed of our universe
Our falling speed is estimated to be much slower than the speed of light. If an object were to fall unhindered into a cosmic black hole from the farthest distance, it would reach almost the speed of light at the Schwarzschild radius. However, as mentioned above, the material itself is actually generated relatively close to the cosmic black hole, so the falling distance is limited. Therefore, the falling speed is also limited.

0-7. About how distant space is seen

For example, let's consider a place where the currently observed time speed is 1/1000 (a place where almost cosmic background radiation is observed). The origin is when the time speed difference between external space and our space was almost zero. The closer you get to the cosmic black hole, the larger the time velocity gradient becomes, and inertial motion occurs once you exceed the Schwarzschild radius. From there, the time speed is fixed at approximately 1/1000.


If the distance from us to "space where the time speed is 1/1000" is 15 billion light years, we are looking at space 15 billion years ago based on the speed of light. The difference in time speed is added to this. The difference from our space is 1/1000, so even if 100 billion years have passed since we started falling, only 100 million years have passed in that space. In other words, the space in which we observe the cosmic background radiation is the space that was still receiving intense 3000K blackbody radiation from outside space, before it exceeded the Schwarzschild radius of the cosmic black hole. You will be looking at . In other words, the cosmic 2.7K microwave background radiation is radiation from this space whose wavelength has been redshifted by about 1000 times.


Similarly, in a space where the time speed is approximately 1/10, the time speed is also 1/10. Therefore , even if it has been 100 billion years since our outer space began to fall , a young universe that is only 10 billion years old will be visible at that location.


0-8.  About external space
External space is a vast space that extends outside the cosmic black hole, and is assumed to be a space with high temperature and sparse mass-energy density. I think the density is lower than the average density of our universe. By the way, the average density of our universe is about 1 hydrogen atom per 1 m^3. If the external space is extremely hot, matter will mainly exist in the form of light energy and dark matter, but depending on the temperature it may exist in the form of matter. In that case, it would contain approximately equal amounts of positive matter and antimatter. Because of their ultra-high temperature and ultra-low density, both can coexist.

0-9. High temperature layer in external space
Regardless of the average temperature of the outer space, falling matter near a cosmic black hole releases energy, becoming extremely hot and forming an ultra-high temperature layer that can only exist in the form of light energy and dark matter. When it approaches a cosmic black hole and is cooled, substances such as hydrogen and helium are produced. After it is further selected by antimatter, it falls into the cosmic black hole.

0-10. External space is never visible
External space is structurally separate from our universe and cannot be observed or visited There may be thousands or even hundreds of millions of such cosmic black holes in outer space , but in principle we cannot observe them.
Link Detailed explanation →  External space and cosmic background radiation

0-11. Light coming from outside space cannot enter our universe.
A large amount of light from outside space always flies into the cosmic black hole. However, the falling speed of outer space as we perceive it is slow, so photons falling from outer space overtake our space and fall. However, they do not enter the space that we recognize. This is because only light along the optical path that connects us to the central core can reach us. All light paths from outside intersect with the light path connecting us to the central core.

202209172021392df.jpg

time model





0-12. Structure of external space


● The high-temperature layer that surrounds the cosmic black hole in the outer space is a region where the outermost layer becomes extremely hot due to the accumulation of energy from falling objects, and where radiation is dominant and there is no material state. It mainly consists of light energy and dark matter. In the next intermediate layer, the temperature gradually decreases due to the cooling effect of the black hole, and then matter is generated from the dark matter. Furthermore, a mechanism works to separate positive matter and antimatter, and only the positive matter and a small number of protons are sent further down to the 3000K black body radiation layer. There, matter (mainly hydrogen, helium, and protons) begins gravitational contraction, forms a certain amount of mass (cloud-like), and falls into the cosmic black hole. This created the macrocosm that we observe. As it falls, the chunks of matter pull in other chunks of matter, forming a string of beads as they fall. It is estimated that this created the filament structure of the galaxy cluster.


External space-1



●Structured to select and drop only positive substances in an annealing space

Positive substance filter 20220905




1. basic theory 

The word mass (inertial mass and gravitational mass have the same meaning) here means "three-dimensional mass." According to the ``four-dimensional volume conservation law'' that I advocate, when matter stretches in the direction of the time axis, its three-dimensional volume decreases, and it may release energy that it cannot contain. However, the four-dimensional volume of matter x・y・z・t remains unchanged. The ability to create a gravitational field depends on the four-dimensional volume of a substance, so even if the three-dimensional volume and three-dimensional mass change, even if they become zero, the gravitational field created by the substance remains unchanged. The mass energy stored in this four-dimensional volume of matter is called "true mass."


1-1. This paper has fully verified the ``formation of the universe''
Explained only by theory
fully verifiedI sought a solution without contradiction within the scope of physical theory, but some of it includes my extended theory. This was necessary in order to establish the main argument. However, we believe that this is a slight modification and is within reason. In this paper, we clearly deny anything like ``creating something from nothing,'' including the reverse. In addition, in this paper, we assume that electric charge and gravitational field are invariant in three-dimensional space, and that matter has an invariant volume in four-dimensional space-time (true mass = x y z t→ invariant I'm trying to prove it.

1-2. This paper argues that dark matter is a form of matter.
This paper argues that mass and its equivalent energy do not have the ability to create a gravitational field. The proof  is a thought experiment in (4. Additional interpretation of the law of conservation of mass and energy ). The gravitational field claims that the true nature of the gravitational field is that the "true mass" of matter whose conservation law holds true in four-dimensional space-time slows down the time speed of space .
In the figure below, when a positron and an electron electrically combine and release all of their bond energy in the form of photons, they become an entity with zero mass w. In conventional theory, this was treated as having disappeared. However, in this paper , according to the law of conservation of four-dimensional volume ( z ・ t → unchanged), the ability to create a gravitational field is maintained, the time axis t of matter extends infinitely, the inertial mass w is zero, and the three-dimensional volume is also They say it will become zero dark matter.
w→Three-dimensional mass of matter (inertial mass, gravitational mass). t → length on the time axis. x・y・z・t → four-dimensional volume, true mass and creates a gravitational field. Since w accommodates energy proportional to the three-dimensional volume x・y・z, the law of conservation of four-dimensional volume may be simply expressed as ``w・t → constant.''

1-3. The ability to create a gravitational field depends on the four-dimensional volume of matter and is invariant
The ability to create a gravitational field through the reaction shown in Figure 1 below is entirely inherited by dark matter. The gravitational field does not change before, during, or after this reaction. Charge is also conserved. According to conventional theory, an electron-positron reaction results in only 0.51 MeV x 2 photons, and does not indicate the existence of an electron-positron bond. It is said that it will disappear. 

My argument: There are conservation laws for mass, energy, gravitational field, and charge in three-dimensional space. Existence of four-dimensional volume conservation law x・y・z・t or w・t → invariant) in four-dimensional space-time. The gravitational field depends on the four-dimensional volume. →It is invariant regardless of the state of matter. Even if the three-dimensional mass w of matter becomes zero due to the release of binding energy, w・t (true mass) remains constant because the time axis t extends infinitely. Therefore, the gravitational field it creates does not change.



pair generation

[Figure-1] Phenomenon in which matter becomes dark matter and then further changes into matter


1-4. About gravitational field
He argues that a gravitational field is a space in which time is delayed due to the action of the true mass of matter = w・t.
The "shell of matter" that appears in the following sentences is conveniently set as an entity that confines energy that moves violently within matter. It is true that matter traps a large amount of energy, and we believe that there is something that plays a role equivalent to a shell (confining energy), regardless of its shape. The substances referred to here are things that are close to elementary particles, such as protons, electrons, and neutrons, or things that are at the quark level.

The true mass of matter causes a time delay in space, which also distorts three-dimensional space. This is because in a space where there is a time delay, the spatial distance also shrinks due to the time velocity ratio.

Internal energy moves randomly within matter . However, their momentum vectors cancel each other out, and no thrust is generated in the material. However, in a space where the time velocity changes, the momentum vector shows directionality, and thrust is generated in the direction where the time velocity is slow. He claims that this is the true nature of gravitational attraction and gravitational acceleration.

This energy is disbursed from the gravitational binding energy between the substances that created the gravitational field. The laws of conservation of mass and energy are also strictly applied here.

The following is my personal opinion regarding the true nature of the gravitational field. For details, refer to the dedicated page → The true nature of gravity


time and space

gravity F


[Figure-2] The temporal velocity gradient in space is the essence of the gravitational field.


A space with a gravitational gradient is a space where there is a spatial strength or weakness depending on the degree of time delay. This strength is determined by the distance to the "true mass" that creates the gravitational field. We believe that this can be found by substituting the ``true mass'' into the mass term of the existing gravity equation.

  
Assume here that in the space where the substance exists in [Figure 2], the time speed is slow on the left side, and the time speed is fast on the right side.


When M moves downward to the left, the trajectory of M is bent toward space where time speed is slow, that is, toward space where time delay is large. This is the same principle that causes light to be refracted in a direction that slows down the speed of light in a transparent material .


Similarly, when M moves to the upper right, the time delay is bent in the direction where the time delay is larger. Therefore, even if M is moving randomly, the trajectory of M is all bent in the direction with a large time delay. Then, the momentum vector sum received by the material shell generates momentum in the direction with a larger time delay.


I argue that this is the principle by which a mass receives an attractive force F=Mg in a gravitational field (here, the temporal velocity gradient in space) . It also suggests that there is an upper limit to the attractive force F = Mg. Since the attractive force F is caused by the momentum of the mass energy M inside the substance , the attractive force F generated when the vectors are aligned has a maximum value.


In addition, if the time velocity of the "time-delayed area" is zero (stopped), the distance becomes zero. There is almost no disagreement with this paper's assertion that the farthest point in the universe that we observe is the event horizon. This is because the conventional Big Bang cosmology also states that the farthest point in the universe is the event horizon, and this point is the same as this theory. Then, it appears to be the inner surface of a sphere with a radius of approximately 14 billion light years, but in reality, its extent is zero and it is a single point. The reason why it appears to spread throughout the sky is due to its spatial structure.


1-5 . Other summary of basic theories

Well-known theories and laws, and my slight suggestions for extensions and modifications to them.


(1) Law of conservation of mass and energy

The total amount of mass energy is constant. Mass here refers to inertial mass and gravitational mass, which is equivalent to energy (conversion formula E=Mc^2)


Extension: No matter what reactions occur within a black box, if there is no movement in or out of it, the mass of the black box and the gravitational field it creates will remain constant. The number of internal charges is also constant (the law of conservation holds true for all). The law of conservation holds true even in electron-positron reactions and proton-antiproton reactions.  Even if charges continue to exist, the combination of positive and negative charges cancels out the electric field, making it impossible to observe from the outside.


(2) In a vacuum, light travels the shortest distance in a straight line

In a vacuum, light travels in a straight line, and the optical path is the shortest distance between two points. If a light path appears to be curved to a distant observer, this is interpreted as a curved space, and the light is traveling in a straight line through the curved space. The optical path is the shortest distance between two points.


Extension: If the time velocity in space slows down to 1/n due to the action of true mass, the distance in space also decreases to 1/n.


(3) In a curved three-dimensional space, there are countless optical paths between two points, all of which are the shortest distance.

Three-dimensional space is curved by a gravitational field, and in a curved three-dimensional space, there may be an infinite number of optical paths between two points instead of one.


Expansion: In a gravitational field with a single structure due to one central nucleus, in a space where all light emitted from an observer heads toward the central nucleus, the light paths between the countless two points are all equidistant between the two points. is the shortest distance. This is the same as the earth's surface, which is a curved two-dimensional space, and there are countless shortest paths that connect the south pole and the north pole, all of which are equidistant. In other words, it is a closed space whose center is equidistant in all directions as seen from the observer. In this model, this logic holds true between two points that are diametrically opposed, such as between the north and south poles of the earth. However, for example, between Japan and Hawaii, two straight lines can be drawn on the earth's surface, but the shortest distance is only one. Also, if the Earth is not a perfect sphere, even if you can draw an infinite number of straight lines, they will not all be equidistant. Handling this area is a little difficult. If there are two optical paths connecting A and B , if this occurs in a single gravitational field, the distance between the two points is the shortest, and they are equidistant. However, if one side is bent by the gravitational lens effect of a mirror or another substance, resulting in multiple optical paths between A and B, the optical paths are naturally not equidistant.


(4) Awareness about black holes

A black hole is a celestial body whose gravitational field is so strong that even light cannot escape. From the perspective of a distant observer, there is an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius, and from the perspective of a distant observer, the falling person's time stops at the event horizon and remains there forever. The redshift also increases and reaches infinity at the event horizon. However, for fall observers, the Schwarzschild radius passes through without any problems and reaches the central core.


Expansion: The optical path of light emitted from a falling observer within the Schwarzschild radius cannot be directed outward, but is greatly bent and all directed toward the central core. Then, since the optical path is reversible, the central nucleus will be visible in all directions to the observer. Moreover, not only can it be seen, but it actually exists in that direction. Since the optical path is the shortest distance between two points, the central nucleus is equidistant in all directions. →From the perspective of all observers scattered within the Schwarzschild radius, they will be at the center of a ``spherical closed space'' surrounded by a ``central nucleus that extends all over the sky at equal distances'' from the celestial sphere →Since the central core exists in the entire sky at an equal distance, the gravity is balanced and a state of weightlessness occurs. In addition, an event horizon is created at an equal distance from the central nucleus. From the observer's point of view, this becomes a closed space where the event horizon exists at an equal distance across the sky, and the observer is trapped. If this happens, there will be no means of communication with the outside world, and escape will be impossible.


(5) Supplementary explanation about gravitational collapse

This paper states that the central core of a cosmic black hole does not become a singularity. This is because when the gravitational field of the central core becomes extremely strong, the distortion of space caused by the gravitational field causes the space to close. This means that space is inverted, and the central core spreads out over the entire sky.


Then, the gravity of the central core is balanced for the falling object, and the object becomes weightless, and its falling speed no longer increases. There is no increase in kinetic energy due to falling. Therefore, even if the object collides with the core, the amount of energy released is limited. There is no significant gravitational force acting on objects piled up in the central core. Therefore, after the space closes and becomes a black hole, the core does not compress much further. There is no gravitational collapse and no singularity. It is a world where normal laws of physics can be applied.



1-6 Summary and theoretical background of this cosmology

In our large universe, the event horizon evenly covers the entire sky at equal distances. Therefore, outer space is basically pitch black and cold, close to absolute zero. In front of the event horizon, space and matter from the past are piled up in a state where time has almost come to a standstill. This includes a layer that emits cosmic background radiation (a high-temperature region with a redshift of about 1000 and a temperature of about 3000 K). 


This is what outer space looked like a long time ago, when outer space was not yet closed and was receiving intense 3000K radiation from an extremely vast external space that we could not perceive. In the region where the wavelength of light increases by N times due to redshift, the speed of time becomes 1/N. A redshift of about 1000 means that the time speed is about 1/1000. Furthermore, it would take about 14 billion years for light to reach there. Therefore, we are looking at the very early universe. The time speed here is about 1/1000, so the distance is also 1/1000. This layer spreads throughout the sky and appears vast, but it is actually narrow. This is one reason why the background radiation is fairly uniform .

Link Detailed explanation →  About the cosmic background radiation


All the celestial bodies that we can observe are falling at the same speed toward the center of the cosmic black hole (the farthest point in the sky). However, the more distant an object is, the closer it is to the central core, so the difference in gravitational potential (according to this theory, the difference in time speed) causes a large gravitational redshift. Many galaxies have a spiral structure because, when matter dispersed in the early universe undergoes gravitational contraction, it is affected by tidal forces from the central core of the universe.


According to this paper, the reason why antimatter does not exist in our universe, the reason why the universe is observed to be expanding at an accelerating rate, and the true nature of dark matter can all be explained rationally within the scope of well-verified physical theories. It's explainable.



2. The position of this paper


Currently, the most supported theory about the origin of the universe is the expanding cosmology (big bang theory). However, I cannot agree with this theory. In order to establish this theory, the principles and theorems of classical physics (from the Newton and Einstein era), which have been thoroughly verified, must be significantly bent.


However, my personal preference is to at least adhere to the law of conservation of mass and energy. If you ignore it until now, you will end up with an absurd worldview that even approves of perpetual motion machines. In addition, in this paper, we assume that electric charges and gravitational fields are invariant in three-dimensional space, and that matter has an invariant volume (w・t = unchanging, true mass) in four-dimensional space-time, and we will use thought experiments to prove this. I'm trying.


Here, I would like to propose a completely different cosmology that strictly adheres to these principles. According to this hypothesis, it is possible to observe the real universe within the scope of classical physics without bringing up strange things such as ``singularity,'' ``expansion of space,'' and ``dark energy,'' which ignore classical physical theory. It is possible to explain the facts almost completely. Therefore, my hypothesis seems to be more intuitively accepted by many people without any resistance.


The existence of dark matter is acknowledged in this paper, and its structure, behavior, and generation mechanism are explained, and its existence is proven through thought experiments. He also provides a rational explanation for why the universe is made up of only positive matter and the 2.7K background radiation in the universe.


Also, the structure of the universe is almost the same between the big bang cosmology and this theory. According to the Big Bang theory, the further away in all directions, the more in the past, and the farthest point is the origin of the Big Bang. This is true in all directions from our perspective. Therefore, even in the Big Bang theory, the origin becomes a kind of inside-out space that spreads throughout the sky. It is also interpreted that in the distance, the expansion speed of space exceeds the speed of light, creating an event horizon that covers our entire sky. From our perspective, this is the same as the structure of outer space (the inner world of a cosmic black hole) according to this paper, and is difficult to distinguish.



3. Main theory's explanation of various observed facts    


The true nature of our universe, as I argue, is that the original stage is an extremely vast external space located in a place that we cannot recognize. It is . The vast universe that we know is contained within this black hole, but it only occupies a very small portion. This black hole will be called the cosmic black hole here. The Schwarzschild radius of a cosmic black hole is probably hundreds of billions to trillions of light years or more .


Matter and light energy falling from outer space accumulate near a cosmic black hole, and the release of falling energy and the reactions of positive and antimatter create an ultra-high temperature layer. The outer to central parts of the layer are dominated by radiation and cannot exist in the form of matter. However, inside this layer, the space temperature gradually decreases due to radiative cooling of the cosmic black hole relative to the event horizon (absolute zero). Then, light energy transfers energy to dark matter and starts producing matter (produced by a set of positive matter and antimatter).


Example: When electron-positron bonding dark matter absorbs high-energy light, the bond is broken and pairs of electrons and positrons are created. Other reactions also occur, such as proton-antiproton pair formation from proton-antiproton bonding dark matter.


pair generation



3-1. Detailed explanation of why our outer space is dark and cold

 The event horizon of the cosmic black hole mentioned above is a place of complete darkness and absolute zero temperature because it absorbs all radiation and does not reflect or re-radiate it. Our outer space is dark because it is surrounded by a wall of absolute zero, and is essentially cooling towards absolute zero. Even if Hawking radiation does exist, its amount is so small that it can be considered as practically absolute zero. This owner does not believe in Hawking radiation. I also deny Dirac's theory about negative energy.


What rejects it is the light energy emitted by many stars, or the remnants of radiant energy (mainly about 3000K blackbody radiation) from the outer space that was poured into space before it closed. However, the absolute temperature is still only about 2.7K.


● Confirm agreement with observational facts ① The universe is dark and cold



3-2.About the expanding universe and Hubble's law 

As mentioned above, in this paper, the more distant an object is from the observer's perspective, the closer it is to the central core. In other words, because the object is on the lower side of the gravitational gradient, the farther away the object is, the more it appears redshifted due to the difference in gravitational potential. This observation led to the idea that the Doppler effect was the cause of redshift, and the theory of an expanding cosmology (big bang theory) was born.


However, my argument is that this is a gravitational redshift, and that our universe is in the process of falling into a cosmic black hole. And the closer an object is to the event horizon of a cosmic black hole, which is the end of what we perceive as outer space, the larger the redshift seen. At the event horizon, the redshift is infinite and the direction is one-way, including radiation, so it is absolutely 0 degrees. This corresponds very closely to the conditions we observe the farthest reaches of the universe.


If the rate of increase in the wavelength of light due to redshift in a certain distant space is N times, the speed of time at that location is 1/N times as seen from us. At the event horizon, time also stops because N becomes infinite. Spaces with large redshifts accumulate in front of this . There is also a space (redshift approximately 1000) that was exposed to high-temperature radiation from outer space before the space closed, and the cosmic 2.7K background radiation is observed from there .


Link Detailed explanation → About the cosmic background radiation


● Confirm agreement with observed facts ②  The more distant the object, the larger the redshift: Hubble's law 




 3-3.Explanation of the elemental composition of our universe 

It is assumed that the outer space that extends outside the cosmic black hole is extremely thin and high temperature, but it is possible that the extremely high temperature that no matter can exist and radiation becomes dominant is only in the space relatively close to the cosmic black hole. Yes.


Matter that was thinly distributed over a wide area in outer space acquires a large amount of kinetic energy as it falls into a cosmic black hole from a distance. And they reach speeds close to the speed of light. This condenses near the cosmic black hole, and through repeated collisions, it turns into thermal energy and becomes extremely hot.


Furthermore, even if it exists as matter in external space, it is likely to be a mixture of positive matter and antimatter. This is possible due to its high temperature and low density. In the process of falling into the cosmic black hole, it collides with the ultra-high temperature layer around the cosmic black hole and becomes a lump of light energy, forming and maintaining an ultra-high temperature layer that cannot exist as a substance .


In this way, at least the vicinity of the cosmic black hole is surrounded by an ultra-hot space where matter can only exist in the form of dark matter and radiant energy, but inside this ultra-high temperature layer, the event horizon of the cosmic black hole ( (absolute zero) the space begins to cool down. Then, substances such as electron-positron pairs and proton-antiproton pairs begin to form from the dark matter.


They further react and produce helium nuclei through fusion, but due to density and time constraints, further fusion reactions are difficult to proceed. Therefore, most of the matter that existed in our early universe started out as hydrogen and helium atoms. However, atoms larger than lithium were also formed in small amounts.


● Confirm agreement with observational facts ③ The constituent materials of the early universe are mainly hydrogen and helium.




3-4. Reconfirmation of the structure of the universe based on this paper
When an observer approaches a cosmic black hole, the central core and the event horizon surrounding it appear to cover the observer due to the distortion of space, as described above. If the black hole falls further beyond the Schwarzschild radius, the black hole's core and event horizon completely envelop the observer. In other words, the space is turned inside out and isolated from the outside. Since the event horizon is at absolute zero, this space cooled rapidly toward absolute zero. The main theory is that this state is the macrocosm that we observe.


If Hawking radiation actually exists, the event horizon may not be strictly at absolute zero, but even if it does exist, it is numerically close to zero and can be effectively treated as absolute zero.


When the event horizon is covered and completely enveloped in this way, and the window connecting to the external space is closed , thousands of degrees of blackbody radiation from the external space is blocked. The radiation that was incident before that quickly flew away from our surroundings and was absorbed toward the event horizon that spreads throughout the sky.



3-5 . About the structure of the high-temperature layer outside the cosmic black hole (external space)

The high-temperature layer surrounding a cosmic black hole has an extremely high temperature of over 10^15K in the center, but as mentioned above, as it approaches the black hole, the temperature drops rapidly due to radiative cooling towards the event horizon. The layer clearly separates at about 3000K. Outside of this, the layer becomes an opaque layer through which light cannot pass through, making it difficult for heat to transfer and making it easier to maintain extremely high temperatures.


However, below about 3,000 K, light can pass through freely, and intense heat is released toward the black hole's event horizon, causing the temperature to drop rapidly. In this way, 3000K synchrotron radiation falls on the black hole's event horizon. This illuminated small particles of matter (mainly hydrogen and helium atoms) falling into the black hole, forming a black body radiation layer of 3000K.



3-6 . About the layer that emits background radiation in our universe

When we crossed the Schwarzschild radius, we were enveloped by this 3000K event horizon with a reflection and re-emission layer, and at the same time, radiation from the outside was blocked. When the blackbody radiation layer, which is far enough away from our surroundings and the event horizon, is blocked from radiation from outside space, the radiant energy remaining in the space is quickly absorbed toward the event horizon, causing the space to cool. It went on. As a result, there is almost no radiation wandering throughout space.


However, in layers with redshifts close to 1000 near the event horizon, it is so far away that light takes nearly 14 billion years to reach it. In other words, that's what it looked like in the past. Furthermore, since the redshift is about 1000, the time speed is also about 1/1000, so we are looking much further into the past. At that location, the space was not yet completely closed, and it was exposed to intense synchrotron radiation from the outside space, which was reflected and re-emitted from minute matter, emitting blackbody radiation of about 3000K. And radiation from it can still be observed today. This is the true nature of the cosmic 2.7K background radiation. The layer that produces this background radiation has a thickness. As the distance increases, the redshift increases further, becoming 2K radiation and then 1K radiation. Background radiation is a combination of these, but the amount of radiation decreases the further away you are, and radiation from further away is absorbed and re-radiated by the radiation layer located closer to you, so it has less impact. Therefore, the radiation from the nearest 3000K diffuse emission layer becomes the main component of the cosmic background radiation.



3-7. Why does background radiation become uniform blackbody radiation?

The reason why the radiation from hydrogen and helium plasma in the external space is not a line spectrum but a black body radiation is because there is sufficient (density x depth). This is the same as the sun's surface emitting blackbody radiation even though it is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.


The background radiation intensity is extremely uniform because it is the same "event horizon" of the cosmic black hole. The central core of the universe becomes a smooth sphere due to its large gravity. Along with this, the event horizon it creates also becomes a uniform sphere and is extremely homogeneous.


In addition, there is a large gravitational lensing effect in this space as a whole, and the center of the black hole is expanded to infinity and spread throughout the sky. Although the magnification factor near the event horizon is smaller, it is still extremely magnified, much smaller than its apparent size (all sky). The distance also decreases due to the time speed ratio. If the redshift is 1000, the plane distance is approximately 1/1000, and the area is 1/1 millionth. This is also the reason why the cosmic background radiation is extremely uniform. In addition, since the time velocity of the event horizon is zero, the distance is also zero, that is, the substance is a point. The reason why it appears to spread throughout the sky is due to a kind of gravitational lensing effect.



3-8. Causes of slight non-uniformity in background radiation

As mentioned above, when viewed from our universe, the background radiation layer of this universe is extremely uniform. However, the distribution of falling substances is not completely uniform, so there are slight distribution patterns. It is also thought that our universe is falling while revolving around the central core, so there may be some bias due to this. It is also quite possible that the central core itself is rotating, so there is a possibility that this may also be observed as a bias in the background radiation of the celestial sphere.


Furthermore, there is likely to be a slight difference between the falling direction just before the space closes and the opposite direction, even after the space closes, in the space where background radiation near the event horizon is observed. These also cause a slight violation of the perfect isotropy of the background radiation.

Link Detailed explanation → Cosmic background radiation


The more distant a celestial body is, the longer it takes for optical information to travel from it, so for example, optical information coming from outer space 13 billion light years away is showing us a view from 13 billion years ago. Furthermore, if the wavelength of the light coming from there is increased by about 10 times due to the red shift due to gravitational redshift, the speed of time is accordingly reduced to about 1/10. Therefore, in addition to the fact that this space is what it was 13 billion years ago, only 1/10 of the time that we perceive has passed since that space was created.



Detailed study and trial calculation of 2.7K background radiation in space


The following is an estimate of the cosmic background radiation. Although it is a rather rough and erratic setting, I believe that the basic outline is reasonable and close to reality.


When the outer space near us began to fall into a cosmic black hole and space began to close, the space we see today, 13 billion light years away, was in almost the same positional relationship. Assuming that the redshift was almost the same, and assuming that the falling speed of both us and the celestial bodies in space 13 billion light years away was 1/2.5 of the speed of light, the time difference from the time they started falling would be 130 Billion c・y (light years) ÷ (1/2.5)C = 32.5 billion years In other words, it can be said that the universe started falling 32.5 billion years in the future.


Assuming that it has been 15 billion years since the area around our galaxy began to fall, the falling distance will be 15 billion y x (1/2.5)c = 6 billion c・y, or 6 billion light years. In the universe 13 billion light years away, 32.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 47.5 billion y since the beginning of the fall, which means that 47.5 billion years have passed since the beginning of the fall.


However, by the time our universe began to fall, it would take 13 billion years for light information to travel from a universe 13 billion light years away, so although it would have started falling 32.5 billion years from now, according to our observations, it would have been 32.5 billion years - 13 billion years away. y = 19.5 billion y In other words, we were looking at the universe 19.5 billion years after it started falling.


From then on, our outer space began to fall, and 15 billion years have passed. Then, the universe 13 billion years from now will begin to fall, and 19.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 34.5 billion y. In other words, the universe that will be 34.5 billion years from the beginning of its fall will be seen 13 billion light years away.


However, in the universe 13 billion light years away, time travels at a speed of 1/10 due to redshift, so 34.5 billion y x (1/10) = 3.45 billion y. In other words, the universe is relatively young, 3.45 billion years after it started falling. You will be watching. The results based on this assumption will be close to the current observed results. Many relatively young galaxies have been confirmed 13 billion light years away in outer space. If the universe is 3.45 billion years old since it started falling, there is no contradiction that many galaxies have been born. Galaxies have been discovered 13.5 billion light years away, but there is no contradiction in this theory. However, it is impossible to provide a logical explanation using the standard Big Bang theory.


Next, what about the layer that emits the cosmic background radiation? According to observational predictions, it is about 13.8 billion light years away from us. The redshift is about 1000, and the time rate is about 1/1000.


When the outer space near us began to fall into a cosmic black hole and space began to close, the space we see today, 13.8 billion light years away, was in almost the same positional relationship. Assuming that the redshift was also the same, about 1000, and assuming that the falling speed of both us and the universe 13.8 billion light years away was 1/2.5 of the speed of light, the time difference from the time we started falling would be 13.8 billion c. ・y (light years) ÷ (1/2.5)C = 34.5 billion years In other words, it can be said that it is a celestial body in outer space that started falling 34.5 billion years ago.


If we assume that it has been 15 billion years since the area around our galaxy started falling, then the universe 13.8 billion light years away will have been 34.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 49.5 billion y since it started falling, which means 49.5 billion years since it started falling. It will be standing there.


However, by the time our universe began to fall, it would take 13.8 billion years for light information to travel from the universe 13.8 billion light years away, so although it would have started falling 34.5 billion years from now, our observations show that it will be 34.5 billion years away - 13.8 billion years away. y = 20.7 billion y In other words, we are looking at the universe 20.7 billion years after it started falling.


From then on, our outer space began to fall, and 15 billion years have passed. Then, the universe 13.8 billion years from now will start falling, and 20.7 billion y + 15 billion y = 35.7 billion y. In other words, the universe 35.7 billion years after it started falling will be seen 13.8 billion light years away.


However, in the universe 13 billion light years away, the speed of time is 1/1000, so 35.7 billion y x (1/1000) = 0.36 billion y. In other words, the universe has not completely closed yet, 3.6 billion years after it started falling. We are looking at the universe as it might have been in its early stages. The results based on this assumption will be close to the current observed results. Space 13.8 billion light years away was not yet completely closed, and was exposed to intense radiation of about 3000 K from outer space. Therefore, this 3000K radiation undergoes a large redshift (approximately 1000) and is observed as the cosmic 2.7K background radiation.


Link Detailed explanation → About the cosmic background radiation


● Confirmation of agreement with observed facts ④  2.7K background radiation in the universe Considerable isotropy and slight deviation



3-9. Mechanism that created the large-scale structure of the universe 

When the space closes, the heat brought in by the material from the outside space is quickly dissipated and cools down to absolute zero. Eventually, matter begins to accumulate due to the gravity of matter and dark matter, stars appear, and galaxies are formed.


When the generated material falls into a cosmic black hole, it does not rain down evenly. It is better to think that before it begins to fall, a certain amount of partial accumulation has already occurred, and that these pieces come together to some extent and fall like viscous fluid. These led to the emergence of galaxy clusters, large-scale structures in the universe. It is also common to think that these objects are orbiting the cosmic black hole.


Another possibility is the production of matter surrounding the cosmic black hole, and the formation of an electron layer at the bottom of the positive matter filter layer.

Link Detailed explanation →  Reason for the absence of antimatter →  Background radiation in external space and the universe 


As electrons are constantly being supplied there, the potential rises, and eventually a discharge (lightning strike) occurs into the cosmic black hole. Then, the light emitted by the powerful electric current pushed away the falling matter particles, creating an empty void, and as a result, the falling matter particles gathered together and formed the source of the structure of a dense galaxy group called a condensed filament. There is a possibility.


● Confirm agreement with observed facts ⑤ Large-scale structure of   galaxies



3-10.Explanation of the observational fact that is generally interpreted as accelerating expansion of the universe 

It is said that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate based on certain observational facts, but this only means that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate when the observed facts are applied to the expanding cosmology (big bang theory). Whether there is or not is another matter.


The observational fact is that when redshift is plotted on the horizontal axis and the distance to the object is plotted on the vertical axis, the predicted distance to the object as the redshift increases, the larger the redshift. The distance is far greater than would be expected if the area were to expand uniformly. Distant objects are farther away than they would be for their redshift values, assuming they were expanding at the same rate . This explains that the current universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Furthermore, observational facts suggest that in the early days of the universe, there was a possibility that the universe was expanding at a slower rate.


According to this theory (cosmic black hole hypothesis), all celestial bodies are in inertial motion (uniform fall) relative to the center of the cosmic black hole.


If we perform a trial calculation assuming that the mass of a cosmic black hole is concentrated at a single point in the central core, the farther away an object is from our galaxy, the smaller the distance to the potential energy difference (approximately ∝ redshift).


This goes against observational facts, but another fact is that the cosmic black hole is not a model in which its mass is completely concentrated in one point. Matter and dark matter (positive-antimatter combinations) are constantly falling, creating a model in which the mass is quite dispersed.


In such a model, for example, in areas where the fall distance is still shallow, such as near our galaxy, the amount and proportion of the matter and dark matter that fall later is small, so the cosmic black hole is modeled as having mass concentrated at a single point. close.


As a result, the observed distance becomes closer to the difference in potential energy as described above. From the point of view of the Big Bang theorists, it appears as if the expansion of space was decelerating and expanding in the early universe.


On the other hand, in some places, such as distant galaxies, where objects have fallen quite deeply, the amount and proportion of dark matter, which is material that falls later, is extremely large, so the cosmic black hole cannot be said to be a model where the mass is concentrated at a single point.


Then, dark matter, which is the material that falls later, acts to alleviate the increase in potential energy of the distant object, and the observation results show that the distance relative to the difference in potential energy becomes greater. From the perspective of the Big Bang theorists, it appears that the expansion of space is accelerating.


However, even if this is observed, it does not mean that space is actually expanding at an accelerated rate. According to this theory, our space is a process of constant velocity falling into the cosmic black hole, so the distance to distant celestial bodies remains constant. The overall size of outer space is shrinking.


In this paper, no matter what the observational facts are, if we change the mass concentration and dispersion of the cosmic black hole, it will be possible to provide an explanation that is consistent with the observational facts, so what kind of observational facts will emerge in the future? can also be dealt with.


Link Detailed explanation →  About the accelerated expansion of the universe

--------------------------------------------------


● Consistency with observational facts ⑥  The ultra-distant object was fainter (more distant) than expected from the Hubble constant




3-11. Growth of a giant black hole at the center of a galaxy and the large-scale structure of a galaxy
The current conclusion is that it is difficult to explain the mystery of the rotation speed of galaxies without introducing something called dark matter. Here, I propose electron-positron bonds and proton-antiproton bonds (possibly quark and anti-quark bonds) as specific candidates for dark matter.

Link Detailed explanation →  Proof of existence of dark matter
Link Detailed explanation →  Behavior of dark matter

These were generated in large quantities as mass and energy approached the cosmic black hole in outer space, where it was heated and then cooled. Its total amount is usually much greater than the total amount of matter.

Electron-positron bonds, proton-antiproton bonds, etc. are referred to here as dark matter or vanishing mass bodies. These are substances with zero mass energy and volume in three-dimensional space, but they exist with the same volume (true mass) in four-dimensional space-time.

And this only has the ability to distort space and create a gravitational field. Since it has zero mass, it moves at the speed of light, but it usually does not collide with matter. However, they affect normal matter due to the gravitational field they create. And he himself receives the reaction. 

As for the influence that vanishing mass bodies had on the formation of the universe, their ability to create gravitational fields and their ability to travel at the speed of light played a major role in the growth of black holes at the center of galaxies, and they also had a major impact on galaxies and their large-scale structures. Gave.

● Consistency with observational facts ⑦ Giant black hole at the center of the galaxy and the large-scale structure of the galaxy



3-12.Elucidating the mystery of galactic rotational motion

When a vanishing mass object (dark matter) passes near the nucleus of ordinary matter, its path is bent, causing it to move in a zigzag motion due to the ordinary matter widely distributed in the galaxy in high concentration, and as a result, the vanishing mass body is bound to the galaxy for a long time. , has a gravitational influence on it. → Behavior of dark matter

As a result, the rotational motion of galaxies began to behave in ways that could not be explained by Kepler's laws.

    
Reference: From S.Asada blog

The true identity of dark matter https://asada1223.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-54.html    
4-dimensional volume conservation law https://asada1223.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-57.html      

● Confirmation of agreement with observed facts ⑧  Peculiar motion of galactic rotation
 
  

3-13. Explanation of why our universe has only positive matter and no antimatter 

In this paper, since there is an external space, any number of mechanisms can be considered to create a closed space containing only positive matter. But it's probably impossible to pinpoint it. Here we will exemplify one of these possibilities.

For example, if we assume that the cosmic black hole is positively charged, a filter will be formed inside the matter generation layer that forms around the cosmic black hole, allowing only positive matter to pass through, and only positive matter will fall into our space. The hypothesis is that it was created. It also explains the mechanism by which a positively charged cosmic black hole becomes even more positively charged. See below for details on this

Link Detailed explanation →  Why there is no antimatter in this universe

● Consistency with observational facts ⑨  Only positive matter is found in our universe


3-14.About the apparent age of the universe

Distant galaxies are falling at almost the same speed as us, so their distances have not changed since ancient times. Distant galaxies are located in space where they fell before our galaxy . Therefore, it can be said that this is the future, but since it takes time for light to reach our galaxy from distant galaxies, the age difference between our galaxy and our galaxy will shrink.

Furthermore, distant galaxies are redshifted, so if the wavelength were to increase five times, time would only progress by one-fifth. As a result, the apparent age of distant galaxies is observed to be much younger than that of our own galaxy. In particular, layers emitting cosmic background radiation with redshifts exceeding 1000 emit time at a rate of 1/1000. Therefore, this means that the universe is quite early.

● Confirmation of agreement with observed facts ⑩  The ages of distant galaxies are not as young as predicted by Big Bang cosmology.




Four. Additional law to the law of conservation of mass and energy


Although the law of conservation of mass and energy still exists today as the most important fundamental law of physics, it is not strictly treated in cosmology or the treatment of positive and antimatter in elementary particles. Here, we will prove that the law of conservation of mass and energy holds strictly in any situation in four-dimensional space-time, and that the gravitational field and the total amount of charge are also strictly conserved. Please note that we have also set up a dedicated page related to this matter, so please refer to that page.

thought experiment


4-1. Explanation of “Thought Experiment Device”
The thought experiment device shown above assumes that influences from the outside world are blocked Assume that A and B are massive objects with completely equal mass. Then, an attractive force due to gravity acts between A and B (F=MA・MB・G/L^2). However, A and B are connected to the generator motor by wire, and the distance cannot be changed unless this motor rotates. The generator motor referred to here is a device that reversibly converts rotational energy into electrical energy, and the conversion efficiency is assumed to be 100%.

Operate the generator motor so that A and B get closer. The combined energy is then released, causing the generator motor to generate electricity and charge the battery with electrical energy. Conversely, to separate A and B, you can supply electrical energy from the battery and use it as a motor to separate A and B. To simplify the discussion, we assume that these movements are slow and that their momentum is negligible.

4-2. Case where mass energy completely disappears from a substance →  Proof ① 
Suppose that in the diagram above, two substances A and B are bound together by a gravitational field. Since A and B have large masses, it is assumed that a large gravitational field is created and a strong gravitational force acts on them. This is held up by a generator motor through a wire. At this point, the generator motor is rotated slowly to shorten the distance between A and B, releasing the bonded energy and generating electricity, which is then stored in the battery.

Then, the mass of A+B decreases by the mass (ΔM=Ef/c ^ 2) corresponding to the energy transferred to the battery . Conversely, the mass of the battery increases strictly by (ΔM=Ef/c ^ 2). As a result, the mass energy in box ② remains constant and the conservation law is satisfied.

Here, if the binding energy is extremely large, it is also assumed that a large amount of binding energy will be released and the masses of A and B will become completely zero.

It is easy to imagine that extremely large binding energy can be released in the case of gravitational bonding and electrical bonding. Mass loss due to gravity is a phenomenon that occurs on a gigantic scale, while mass loss due to electric force is a phenomenon that occurs in the microscopic domain. In the micro domain, strong and weak forces other than electric force may also participate in the bond.

4-3. Even if mass becomes zero, matter and gravitational field continue to exist →  Proof ② 

Even if a substance releases binding energy and its mass and volume become zero, the substance continues to exist in four-dimensional space-time without any change in its four-dimensional volume. The volume and mass in three-dimensional space are simply zero because the time axis has extended infinitely → Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law

It is not mass or energy that creates a gravitational field . It is matter, and the ability of matter to create a gravitational field is proportional to its volume in four-dimensional space-time (more precisely, three-dimensional mass x time axis length). This value is expressed here as true mass or gravitational mass. By the way, a gravitational field is a state in which the time axis of space is extended (time speed is delayed) due to the "true mass = gravitational mass" of matter.

In the previous proof, we came to the conclusion that there are cases where the combined mass of substances A and B becomes zero, but even if the combined mass of A and B becomes zero, A and B still exist. It's not that I stopped doing it. Even if the three-dimensional volume (mass) of matter becomes zero, the four-dimensional volume is conserved and the gravitational field does not change. I will prove it below.

4-4 . Reversibility of mass loss phenomenon
In the thought experiment shown above, even if A and B release their bonding energy and their mass decreases infinitely, this process is reversible. If electrical energy is supplied from the battery and the generator motor winds up the wire and separates A and B, A and B will always return to their original mass.

This means that even if the mass decreases or disappears, substances A and B will always exist within Box ①. In other words, there is no change in the coordinates of A and B. At the viewpoints (coordinates) of A and B, its own mass does not change either. This is just a mass movement and disappearance phenomenon from the perspective of an external observer. Even if you think about it from common sense physics, it is impossible for the substances that make up A and B to escape from Box ① via the rope. Only energy can escape through the rope.

Also, suppose that energy is transferred to the battery and the mass inside box ① approaches zero. If the gravitational field is caused by mass, the gravitational field in box ① will also approach zero. If that happens, even if you try to wind up A and B and pull them apart, the gravitational force will be close to zero, so almost no energy will flow back from the battery. In other words, the masses of A and B will not be recovered, and reversibility will no longer be achieved. This is physically impossible.

Therefore, the gravitational field is not brought about by mass energy, but is created by the substances A and B. Energy does not create a gravitational field. However, energy is equivalent to mass, has inertial mass, and experiences acceleration in a gravitational field.

4-5. Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law to explain mass loss
This phenomenon that occurs to Mr. A and Mr. B can be explained by shape changes in four-dimensional space and time. If the length on the X-axis is x, the length on the Y-axis is y, the length on the Z-axis is z, and the length on the T-axis (time axis) is t, then in 4-dimensional space-time, it is a 4-dimensional volume . It is reasonable to think that x・y ・z ・t is conserved. When a large amount of binding energy is released due to bonding, x・y ・z (= mass) decreases so as to satisfy the law of conservation in three-dimensional space , and corresponding energy is generated.

In other words, matter is an entity whose four-dimensional volume is conserved, and energy is an entity whose total amount is conserved in three-dimensional space. Since matter can be deformed along the time axis, its volume (=mass) in three-dimensional space can change, but energy is a quantity that is conserved in total in three-dimensional space and cannot escape along the time axis.

Then, as x, y , and z are reduced so as to satisfy the conservation law in four-dimensional space-time, the time axis t is extended, and the four-dimensional volume becomes constant, satisfying the conservation law. This means that the material's time is delayed.

To explain this in terms of humans, when a large amount of bond energy is released, x, y , z, that is, the volume and mass seen by an external observer, are observed to become smaller, and t is observed to be longer, that is, the lifespan is observed to be longer. .

Ultimately, volume and mass become zero, the time axis extends infinitely, and proper time stops.

However, from their point of view (coordinates), their mass and time are the same as usual, and there is no change. This is just a story from the perspective of an outside observer . →  Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law

4-6. Mass loss and time delay that appear in all bond energy release phenomena
It is well known that in a gravitational field, when binding energy is released and mass decreases, time also slows down, but according to this paper, this is not limited to gravitational fields, but also applies to all types of binding energy such as electric force, nuclear force, etc. I argue that the disappearance of mass and time delay occur together in the phenomenon of emitting . →This follows from the four-dimensional volume conservation law that I propose.

In addition, it has traditionally been thought that there is a special, unexplained field called a ``gravitational field,'' but this paper argues that the time delay in space caused by this material itself is a ``gravitational field.'' In a space where time is delayed, the distance shrinks in proportion to the delay, and as a result, the three-dimensional space is also distorted.



Five. Illustration of the mechanism by which space closes and flips


We have created a new page for this content, so please refer to it.


Link Detailed explanation →  The scenery inside a cosmic black hole and the mechanism that creates a closed space.


Link Detailed explanation →  A view inside a cosmic black hole and - - -  English edition



The following will be listed together for a while, but the above is more accurate.



103.jpg



104.jpg


105.jpg



The massive star here is a black hole. And its surface is the black hole's event horizon. In other words, in the inner world of a black hole, as seen from the observer's perspective, the central core and the event horizon surrounding it extend equidistantly throughout the sky. Isn't this the very space we are observing? This is the origin of the idea of ​​this thesis.


Once again, let's summarize what would happen if our universe were the inner world of a giant black hole, an inside-out universe.


The image below shows an observer falling into a cosmic black hole, but space has not yet completely closed.


The story is about an observer falling from external space, and along with the fall, there is the creation of matter, the separation of positive and antimatter, and the selective falling layer. Here, only positive matter fell selectively and created our universe.

Next is the blackbody emissive layer at about 3000K, beyond which protons capture electrons and light can pass freely through space. Then, the synchrotron radiation energy is efficiently absorbed by the event horizon of the cosmic black hole, causing the space temperature to drop rapidly. The afterglow near the event horizon illuminated by this large amount of 3000K blackbody radiation is the source of the 2.7K radiation that we still observe as the cosmic background radiation. The diagram below is an illustration up to this stage, right before the space closes and a pitch-black closed space is created.

202309173.jpg



The three figures below explain the situation from the perspective of a falling observer, when an observer approaches the Schwarzschild radius of a cosmic black hole and then falls beyond that Schwarzschild radius. Gradually, the event horizon of the black hole begins to cover the observer, and finally, when it exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, the event horizon completely envelops the observer. This is a completely isolated and closed space, and the recognizable universe is within this range.

Spatial structure change ①


Spatial structure change ②

Spatial structure change ③




The figure below shows the world encountered by an observer falling within the Schwarzschild radius of a cosmic black hole, including the unrecognizable regions outside the event horizon. .


BHD-4.jpg


The cosmic black hole is the gigantic black hole assumed here, and it contains all of the cosmic space that we recognize as a small part of it. Its size is probably over a Schwarzschild radius of several trillion light years. The outer space that we perceive is the space surrounded by the event horizon of the cosmic black hole as seen from the observer in the above figure (the dark area in the first figure).

The event horizon is where it takes the speed of light to throw an object to an observer. For a distant observer, it would be in the Schwarzschild radius, but for the falling observer cat, this would not be the case. As you approach the Schwarzschild radius in free fall, the event horizon for that observer recedes. As it gets closer, it recedes even further, enveloping the observer as if to hide the central core that spreads over and over it, and when it exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, the space completely closes, creating a closed space surrounded by the event horizon. become.

In this way, outer space as we know it is completely surrounded by the event horizon of a large cosmic black hole. Furthermore, due to the spatial structure in which the central core of the cosmic black hole exists at equal distances in all directions, the gravity is balanced, creating a state of weightlessness. This is the same when viewed from other places in this space (for example, a black cat living in a distant galaxy), and from his point of view, he is also observed as if he were at the center of the sphere.

From the observer's point of view, Kuroneko, a distant galaxy, has a low gravitational potential because it is close to the central core, and the light coming from it is redshifted. Time is also delayed at the same rate as the wavelength is lengthened. Even if they tried to see us from a distant black cat, they would not be able to observe us because we started falling quite late. In other words, objects that start falling before the observer can be seen, but objects that fall later cannot be seen.


6. conclusion    


The closed spatial structure inside the black hole was the same as the universe we observe. We are in the process of falling within the Schwarzschild radius of a cosmic black hole, a black hole whose Schwarzschild radius is probably over a trillion light years.



observer commentary

 (sweat) This is just the owner's claim, and of course it's a hypothesis.

 However, he himself thinks that the explanation of dark matter is clear and groundbreaking.

 The explanation for why there is no antimatter is also the most convincing compared to other theories.

 Author's claim: What is more revolutionary is the conclusion that the space of celestial bodies within the Schwarzschild radius is reversed, so the gravity of the central core is canceled out, and the gravitational acceleration becomes zero. Now, the law of conservation of mass and energy holds true forever, and there is no infinite compression of the central core, so there is no need to consider singularities. According to this theory, the inside of a black hole was not a very special environment! It was just that the space was reversed and turned inside out. The law of conservation of mass and energy holds true for the universe as a whole, and gravitational fields and electric charges are also conserved. There are no singularities. This is a perfectly ordered worldview. 


   It's scary. Has the owner's beliefs finally reached this point? - - - 







Author's note: After much trial and error, has this cosmology been almost completed? kana?  

I have put together a story that explains the origin of the universe, including a proposal for a new physical law (extended interpretation within the scope of classical physics).


For now, as I explain to myself, there are almost no unexplainable aspects of the structure of the universe. 
In my opinion, this story is probably correct!




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