The above is a brief summary of the thesis. The main text of this paper is below. The main sentence has a completely complete syntax by itself, so there are parts that overlap with the above commentary sentence.
Hypotheses about the formation of the universe Cosmological theory of inside-out space
Last update 2022/02/26 S.Aada First edition around 2012
Reason for update: Incorporation of new knowledge and ideas
Purpose of this paper
The expansion theory (Big Bang theory) is currently the most popular theory about the origin of the universe. It can be said that this is the same color. But I disagree with this theory. In order to establish this theory, the principles and theorems of classical physics (Newton and Einstein era) that have been sufficiently verified must be bent considerably.
However, as my personal intention, I would like to keep the "law of conservation of mass and energy" at least. If you ignore it until now, it will be an unreasonable view of the world that affirms the perpetual motion machine. In addition, I think that the gravitational field and electric charge are also invariants that should be preserved.
And here, I would like to propose a completely different theory of cosmology that has been constructed strictly following these principles. According to this hypothesis, even if we do not bring up strange things such as "singularity", "expansion of space, inflation", "dark energy" that ignore classical physics, the observational facts of the real universe can be can be fully explained. Therefore, I think that my hypothesis is more intuitively accepted by many people without hesitation.
The existence of dark matter is also acknowledged in this paper, and its structure, behavior, and generation mechanism are explained, and its existence is proved by thought experiments. He also gives a rational explanation of why the universe has become pure matter and the 2.7K background radiation of the universe.
In the following, I explained the outline of this paper in the preface of (0), then listed various observational facts in (1) to (10), and added the interpretation of this paper to them. Furthermore , in (11) to (13), I illustrated how space closes and the state of our universe located inside a cosmic black hole, and added explanations to the extent possible.
0. Preface An Overview of the Overall Structure of the Universe
The identity of our universe, which I claim, is based on the assumption that there is . The universe as we know it is contained within this black hole, but it is only a very small part of it. This black hole is called a cosmic black hole here. The Schwarzschild radius of a cosmic black hole is probably hundreds of billions to trillions of light years or more .
Matter, light energy, etc. falling from the outer space accumulate in the vicinity of the cosmic black hole, and an ultra-high temperature layer is created by the release of the falling energy and the reaction of positive and antimatter. The central part of the layer is radiation-dominant and cannot exist in the form of matter. However, inside this layer, the space temperature drops sharply because it radiatively cools against the event horizon (absolute zero) of the cosmic black hole. Then the light energy passes energy to the dark matter to produce matter.
Example: Electron-positron bonding type dark matter absorbs high-energy light, breaks the bond, and generates an electron-positron pair. In addition to this, reactions such as proton-antiproton pair formation from proton-antiproton bonding type dark matter occur.
After that, only positive substances (mainly hydrogen, helium, lithium) and various dark matter fall through a filter layer that selectively drops only positive substances, and are radiatively cooled to near absolute zero within the Schwarzschild radius. The outer space observed by is created.
If it falls beyond the Schwarzschild radius, the space will turn inside out and become a closed space where the central core of the cosmic black hole spreads all over the sky. And because the central core was covered with an event horizon, our outer space became pitch black and cooled to near absolute zero.
In this inside-out space, all directions are toward the center of the cosmic black hole, that is downward. Therefore, the farther down is, the difference in gravitational potential causes the light coming from there to be redshifted, and at the event horizon, the redshift is infinite and the speed of time is zero. I will explain these details later, so please accept them as they are for now.
In addition, in this inverted space, the central nucleus of the cosmic black hole exists in the entire sky at the same distance from the person who fell, so the gravity is balanced and it becomes a weightless state. The falling person (object) is accelerated by the gravity of the central core up to the Schwarzschild radius, after which it becomes a uniform motion due to inertia. This theoretical setup preserves the law of conservation of mass and energy throughout the universe.
However, since we have already acquired a large falling velocity in the process of falling to the Schwarzschild radius, the distance to the central core is shrinking at a constant velocity. From our point of view, this is observed as the farthest event horizon approaches us at a constant speed, that is, the size of the macrocosm is shrinking. It remains equidistant to distant galaxies, but as the event horizon approaches, it redshifts and effectively disappears from the farthest galaxies.
Our falling speed, which we estimate to be considerably slower than the speed of light. If an object were to fall into a cosmic black hole from the farthest distance without obstruction, its velocity would approach the speed of light at the Schwarzschild radius. However, as mentioned above, the actual production of matter itself is relatively close to the cosmic black hole, so the falling distance is limited. Therefore, the fall speed is also limited.
The outer space is the vast space that extends outside the cosmic black hole, and is assumed to be a space with high temperature and low mass energy density. The density would be lower than the average density of our universe. By the way, the average density of our universe is about 1 hydrogen atom per 1m^3. At high temperatures it will exist mainly in the form of light energy and dark matter, but depending on the temperature it may exist in the form of matter. In that case, it would contain roughly equal amounts of positive matter and antimatter.
And regardless of the average temperature of the outer space, near the cosmic black hole, the energy emission of the falling matter becomes high density and ultra-high temperature, forming an ultra-high temperature layer that can only exist in the form of light energy and dark matter.
Outer space is structurally separate from our universe and can never be observed or visited. There may be thousands or hundreds of millions of such cosmic black holes in outer space, but we cannot observe them in principle. → external space and cosmic background radiation
A large amount of light always jumps into the cosmic black hole from the outer space. Since the falling speed of outer space that we perceive is slow, the photons falling from the outer space pass our space and fall. But they do not enter the space we perceive.
1. A detailed explanation of why the universe is dark and cold
The event horizon of a cosmic black hole, as described above, is a dark, absolute zero place that absorbs all radiation and does not reflect or re-radiate it. Our outer space is dark because it's surrounded by walls of absolute zero, and it's basically cooling down to absolute zero. Even if Hawking radiation exists, its amount is so small that it can be considered to be practically absolute zero.
It is the light energy emitted by many stars that rejects it, or the remnants of radiant energy from outer space that was poured into space before it closed. However, the absolute temperature is still only about 2.7K.
→ Confirmed agreement with observational facts (1) Space is dark and cold
2. About the expanding universe and Hubble's law
As mentioned above, in this thesis, this space is closer to the central core as the distant celestial body is viewed from the observer. In other words, since it is on the lower side of the gravitational gradient, the more distant objects appear to be red-shifted due to the difference in gravitational potential. From this observation result, the expansion theory (big bang theory) was born, assuming that the cause of the redshift is the Doppler effect.
But my argument is that this is a gravitational redshift, and that our universe is in the process of falling into a cosmic black hole. And the closer the celestial body is to the event horizon of the cosmic black hole, which is the end of the cosmic space we perceive, the larger the redshift. In the event horizon, the redshift is infinite and it is a one-way street including radiation, so it becomes absolute 0 degrees. This then matches very well with what we observe in the farthest reaches of the universe.
If the increase rate of the wavelength of light due to redshift in a certain distant space is N times, the speed of time in that place is 1/N times the speed of time seen from us. At the event horizon, time stops because N becomes infinite. Spaces with large redshifts are piled up in front of it. There is also a space exposed to hot radiation from outer space (redshift about 1000) before the space closed, from which the 2.7K cosmic background radiation is observed. → About cosmic background radiation
→ Consistency with observed facts(2) Larger redshifts for distant celestial bodies: Hubble's law
The shape of the universe as we perceive it
Our universe is an inside-out space inverted by the cosmic black hole's enormous gravity.
In other words, the black hole's central nucleus covers the entire sky and the event horizon in front of it is wrapped in a dark, closed space near absolute zero, which is the universe we perceive.
The distance to the event horizon is estimated to be about 13.8 billion light years.
Our galaxy is also falling at such a high speed that the distance to the event horizon is shrinking at a constant speed.
The falling speed reaches the speed of light at the Schwarzschild radius when falling from infinity without obstacles.
However, most of the kinetic energy in the falling process becomes thermal energy and is used to keep the external space at a high temperature.
As a result, our universe is falling faster, but much slower than the speed of light.
Other galaxies are falling at about the same speed as us, so we keep about the same distance.
Supplementary explanation corner
Outline of theory and law adopted here that seems to be standard
① Law of conservation of mass and energy
→The total amount of mass energy is constant and does not increase or decrease.
Extension: No matter what reaction takes place inside a black box, if there is no movement in or out of it, the mass of the black box and the gravitational field it creates remain constant. The number of internal charges is also constant. Even if it is an electron-positron reaction. It may not be possible to observe from the outside due to the combination of positive and negative charges.
②Light travels the shortest distance in a vacuum
→ Light travels straight in a vacuum, and its optical path is the shortest distance between two points.
Extension: Even in a curved three-dimensional space, light passes through the shortest distance between two points. Even though the optical path looks curved to us, it is actually the shortest distance (straight line) in the curved space.
③ There may be many shortest distances between two points in a curved three-dimensional space.
→ Three-dimensional space is curved by the gravitational field, and in the curved three-dimensional space, there are cases where the number of optical paths between two points is not one but infinite.
Extension : In the case of a space where all the light emitted from the observer is directed to the central nucleus in a single-structured gravitational field with one central nucleus, all the optical paths between the two points created innumerably are equidistant between the two points. is the shortest distance between This is the same as that on the surface of the earth, which is a curved two-dimensional space, there are countless shortest paths connecting the south pole and the north pole, and they are all equidistant. In other words, it becomes a closed space whose center is equidistant in all directions as seen from the observer.
④ Recognition of black holes
A black hole is a celestial body whose gravitational field is so strong that not even light can escape. For a distant observer, the event horizon is at the Schwarzschild radius, and for a distant observer, time stops at the event horizon and the faller remains there forever. The redshift also increases and reaches infinity at the event horizon. However, for a fall observer, the Schwarzschild radius passes through without hindrance and reaches the central nucleus.
Extension : The optical path of light emitted from a falling observer within the Schwarzschild radius cannot go outside, and is greatly bent and all goes to the central nucleus. Then, since the optical path is reversible, the central nucleus can be seen in all directions of the observer. Moreover, it is not only visible but actually exists in that direction. Since the optical path is the shortest distance between two points, the central nuclei are present at equal distances in all directions. → From the viewpoint of all observers scattered within the Schwarzschild radius, they are in the center of a spherical closed space surrounded by a central core spread equidistant to the celestial sphere . →Because the central nucleus is equidistant in the whole sky, the gravity is balanced and it becomes weightless. An event horizon is formed equidistant from the central core. When viewed from the observer's point of view, it becomes a closed space in which the event horizon exists at an equal distance in the whole sky and is confined. When this happens, there is no means of communication with the outside and escape is impossible.
3. A description of the elemental composition of our outer space
It is presumed that the outer space extending outside the macrocosmic black hole will be very rarefied and hot, but the only space relatively close to the macrocosmic black hole is the super-high temperature where matter cannot exist and radiation is dominant. .
Matter, which is widely and thinly distributed in the outer space, acquires a large amount of kinetic energy in the process of falling from a distant place into a cosmic black hole. And they will reach speeds close to the speed of light. It is concentrated near the cosmic black hole, and through repeated collisions, it turns into thermal energy and becomes extremely hot.
In addition, even if it exists as matter in the external space, it is highly likely that it is in a state where positive matter and antimatter are mixed. This is possible because of the low density. Then, in the process of falling into the cosmic black hole, it collides with the super-high temperature layer around the cosmic black hole and becomes a mass of light energy, forming an ultra-high temperature layer that does not exist as a substance.
In this way, at least the vicinity of the cosmic black hole is surrounded by an ultra-high temperature space where matter can only exist in the form of dark matter and radiant energy. Absolute zero) begins to cool the space. Then electron-positron pairs, proton-antiproton pairs, and other substances begin to form pairs.
They further react and produce helium nuclei, etc. by fusion, but due to the relationship between density and time, it is difficult for the fusion reaction to proceed any further. So in the early days of our universe, most of the existing matter started with hydrogen and helium atoms. However, a small amount of atoms larger than helium were also produced.
→ Confirmed agreement with observational facts(3) The constituents of the early universe were mainly hydrogen and helium.
4. A description of the cosmic 2.7K background radiation
When an observer approaches a black hole, it is observed that the center nucleus and the event horizon surrounding it are covered by the observer due to the distortion of the space as described above. As it falls further and exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, the black hole's core and event horizon completely envelop the observer. In other words, the space is turned inside out and isolated from the outside. Since the event horizon is at absolute zero, this space cooled rapidly toward absolute zero. The main point is that this state is the macrocosm we are observing.
Strictly speaking, if Hawking radiation exists, the event horizon may not be at absolute zero, but it is numerically close to zero and can be effectively treated as absolute zero.
When the event horizon was completely covered and the window connected to the outer space was closed in this way, several thousand degrees of blackbody heat radiation from the outer space was blocked. The previously incoming radiation quickly flew away from our surroundings and was absorbed towards the event horizon, which spreads across the sky.
The high-temperature layer surrounding the cosmic black hole has an extremely high temperature of 10^15K in the center, but as mentioned above, the temperature drops sharply as it approaches the black hole due to radiative cooling to the event horizon. And at about 3000K, the layers are clearly separated. Beyond that, it becomes an opaque layer that does not allow light to pass through, making it difficult for heat to transfer and maintaining a very high temperature.
However, below about 3,000 K, light becomes free to pass through, causing a violent heat release toward the black hole's event horizon and a sharp drop in temperature. In this way, the event horizon of the black hole is flooded with synchrotron radiation of 3000K. This illuminated the particles of matter (mainly hydrogen and helium atoms) falling on the black hole, forming an emissive layer of 3000K.
As we crossed the Schwarzschild radius, we were enveloped by this 3000K event horizon containing a reflective, re-radiating layer, while simultaneously blocking external radiation. A 3000K layer formed near the event horizon with a redshift close to 1000 has a time velocity of about 1/1000, so the space is not yet closed at that location and intense radiation from the outer space It is exposed to light and maintains a spatial temperature of about 3000K. Emissions from it are still observed today. This is the identity of the 2.7K background radiation in the universe.
The radiation from hydrogen or helium plasma in the external space does not become a line spectrum but becomes black body radiation because there is sufficient (density x depth). This is the same as the fact that the sun's surface is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium, but it emits black body radiation.
The background radiation intensity is quite uniform because it is the same 'event horizon' of cosmic black holes. The central core of the universe becomes a sphere with no unevenness due to large gravity. Along with that, the event horizon created by it also becomes a uniform sphere and is extremely homogeneous.
In addition, there is a large gravitational lens effect in this space as a whole, and the center of the black hole is expanded to infinity and spreads to the whole sky. The event horizon is magnified to a lesser extent, but still very large, much smaller than the apparent magnitude (whole sky). This also causes the cosmic background radiation to be extremely uniform.
Therefore, when viewed from our universe, the event horizon is equidistant and flat. In addition, it is thought that our universe is falling while revolving around the central nucleus, so there will be bias due to that. Moreover, since the central core itself is also thought to be rotating, there is a possibility that they can also be observed as a bias in the background radiation of the celestial sphere.
In addition, there seems to be a slight difference in the space where the background radiation near the event horizon is observed even after the space is closed, between the fall direction just before the space closes and the opposite direction. These also cause a slight violation of the perfect anisotropy of the background radiation. Details → Cosmic Background Radiation
The layers just in front of this cosmic background emitting layer are a little less redshifted, so a little time has passed, and the space there is already closed, and the radiation from the outer space is don't come in Therefore, it is rapidly cooled, so there is almost no radiation from it.
The more distant a celestial body is, the more time it takes for light information to travel from it. For example, the light information coming from outer space 13 billion light years away gives us a view of 13 billion years ago. In addition, the light coming from there is redshifted by gravitational redshift, and the wavelength is about 10 times longer.
The following is a trial calculation of cosmic background radiation. It's a fairly short and violent setting, but I think the basic line is reasonable and close to the facts.
When the outer space near us began to fall into the cosmic black hole and the space began to close, the visible universe 13 billion light years away had almost the same positional relationship. Assuming that the redshift is almost the same, and assuming that the falling speed of the celestial body and the outer space 13 billion light years away is 1/2.5 of the speed of light, the time difference from the start of falling is 130. 100 million c･y (light years) ÷ (1/2.5) C = 32.5 billion years In other words, it can be said that outer space started falling 32.5 billion years ago.
Assuming that it has been 15 billion years since the surroundings of our galaxy began to fall, the falling distance is 15 billion y x (1/2.5) c = 6 billion c y, that is, 6 billion light years. 32.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 47.5 billion y since the universe 13 billion light years away started falling In other words, 47.5 billion years have passed since it started falling.
However, when our universe begins to fall, it takes 13 billion years for light information to be transmitted from the universe 13 billion light years away, so although it started falling 32.5 billion years later, our observations are 32.5 billion y-13 billion. y = 19.5 billion y In other words, we were looking at the universe 19.5 billion years after it started falling.
From there, our outer space also began to fall, and 15 billion years have passed. Then, the universe 13 billion years ahead will start falling 19.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 34.5 billion y.
However, in the universe 13 billion light years away, the speed of time progresses by 1/10 due to redshift, so 34.5 billion y × (1/10) = 3.45 billion y In other words, the universe is relatively young at 3.45 billion years after it started falling. You are watching. Results from this assumption would be close to current observations. Many relatively young galaxies have been confirmed in outer space 13 billion light years away. There is no contradiction even if a large number of galaxies are born in outer space 3.45 billion years after the start of falling. A galaxy has been discovered 13.5 billion light years away, but there is no contradiction in this theory. However, the standard story of the big bang theory would be impossible to explain logically.
Next, what about the layers responsible for cosmic background radiation? Predicted by observations, it is about 13.8 billion light-years away from us. The redshift is about 1000 and the time velocity is about 1/1000.
When the outer space near us began to fall into the cosmic black hole and the space began to close, the visible universe 13.8 billion light years away had almost the same positional relationship. Assuming that the redshift is also about 1000, and assuming that the falling speed of us and the universe 13.8 billion light years away is 1/2.5 of the speed of light, the time difference from the start of falling is 13.8 billion c. ･ y (light year) ÷ (1/2.5) C = 34.5 billion years In other words, it can be said that the outer space and the celestial body started falling 34.5 billion years ago.
Assuming that it has been 15 billion years since the surroundings of our galaxy began to fall, the universe 13.8 billion light years away has been 34.5 billion y + 15 billion y = 49.5 billion y. It will be standing.
However, when our universe begins to fall, it takes 13.8 billion years for light information to be transmitted from the universe 13.8 billion light years away, so although it started falling 34.5 billion years later, our observations are 34.5 billion years to 13.8 billion years. y = 20.7 billion y In other words, we are looking at the universe 20.7 billion years after it started falling.
From there, our outer space also began to fall, and 15 billion years have passed. Then, the universe 13.8 billion years ahead will start falling 20.7 billion y + 15 billion y = 35.7 billion y.
However, in the universe, which is 13 billion light years away, the speed of time is 1/1000, so 35.7 billion y x (1/1000) = 36 million y. We are looking at the early universe. Results from this assumption would be close to current observations. The outer space, which is 13.8 billion light-years away, was not closed yet, and was exposed to intense radiation of about 3000K from outer space. Therefore, this 3000K radiation undergoes a large redshift (approximately 1000) and is observed as the 2.7K cosmic background radiation.
→ About cosmic background radiation
→ Confirmed agreement with observed facts(4) 2.7K cosmic background radiation Significant isotropy and slight deviation
In this paper, the central core of the macrocosmic black hole does not become a singularity. This is because when the gravitational field of the core becomes extremely strong, the distortion of the space due to the gravitational field causes the space to close. This means that the space is inverted, and the central nucleus spreads all over the sky.
Then, the gravity of the central core balances the falling object and it becomes weightless, and the falling speed does not increase any more. Therefore, even if the object collides with the central core, the amount of energy released is limited. A large gravitational force does not act on objects piled up in the central core. Therefore, after the space closes and becomes a black hole, the core does not compress much further. There is no gravitational collapse and no singularity. It's a world where normal laws of physics apply.
5. Mechanism of the large-scale structure of the universe
When the space is closed, the heat brought in by the material from the outer space is quickly dissipated and cooled to absolute zero. Eventually, matter begins to accumulate due to the gravity of matter and dark matter, stars appear, and galaxies are formed.
When the generated matter falls into the macrocosmic black hole, it does not fall evenly. It is better to think that a certain amount of partial accumulation has already occurred before the fall starts, and that they are collected to some extent and fall like a viscous fluid. These gave rise to clusters of galaxies, the large-scale structure of the universe. In addition, it would be normal to think that these are orbiting the macrocosmic black hole.
Another possibility is the formation of matter enveloping a cosmic black hole, with an electron layer at the bottom of the positive matter filter layer. → Reason why there is no antimatter → External space and cosmic background radiation
Since electrons are constantly supplied there, the potential rises, and eventually discharge (lightning strike) to the cosmic black hole. Then, the falling matter particles were pushed aside by the light emission caused by the strong current, and empty voids were generated. It is possible.
→ Conformity with observed facts （5）Large -scale structure of galaxies
6. Explanation of observations commonly interpreted as the accelerating expansion of the universe
It is said that the expansion of the universe is accelerating based on certain observational facts. Whether they are or not is another matter.
The observed fact is that redshift is plotted on the horizontal axis and the distance to the object is plotted on the vertical axis. It is too far away from what would be expected if the region were uniformly dilated. Distant objects are farther away than they would be at a redshift value predicted to be expanding at the same rate . This explains that the current universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. Furthermore, it is said that there is a possibility that the expansion of the universe was decelerating in the early stage of the universe.
According to this theory (cosmic black hole hypothesis), all celestial bodies are in inertial motion (constant velocity fall) with respect to the center of the cosmic black hole.
Assuming that the mass of the cosmic black hole is concentrated at the central nucleus, the distance to the potential energy difference (approximately ∝ redshift) becomes smaller as the celestial body is farther away from our galaxy.
This goes against the observational fact, but another fact is that the cosmic black hole is not a model in which the mass is completely concentrated at one point. It is a model in which matter and dark matter (positive-antimatter combination) are constantly falling, and the mass is distributed considerably.
In such a model, for example, in the vicinity of our galaxy, where the falling distance is still shallow, the amount and ratio of matter and dark matter falling later is small, so the cosmic black hole is a model in which the mass is concentrated at one point. near.
Then, the observation result becomes close to the distance with respect to the potential energy difference as described above. From the point of view of the big bang theorists, it seems that the expansion of space is slowing down in the early universe.
Conversely, because the amount and proportion of celestial objects that fell considerably deep, such as distant galaxies, and the amount and ratio of dark matter that falls later, the mass of the cosmic black hole cannot be said to be a single-point mass model.
Then, dark matter, which falls later, works to mitigate the increase in the potential energy of distant objects, and the observation results show that the distance to the difference in potential energy becomes longer. From the point of view of the big bang theorists, the spatial expansion seems to be accelerating.
However, even if it is observed as such, the space is not actually accelerating expansion. According to this paper, our space is a constant velocity fall process to the cosmic black hole, so the distance to the distant celestial body is kept constant. The size of the universe as a whole is shrinking.
In this paper, no matter what the observational facts are, if we change the degree of mass concentration and dispersion of the cosmic black hole, it will be possible to provide an explanation that is consistent with the observational facts. can also be dealt with.
→ About the accelerating expansion of the universe
→ Consistency with observed facts(6) Ultra-distant objects were fainter (farther) than expected from the Hubble constant
7. Growth of supermassive black holes at galactic centers andlarge-scale structures
The current conclusion is that it is difficult to explain the mystery of the galaxy's rotation speed without introducing something called dark matter. Here, I propose electron-positron conjugates and proton-antiproton conjugates (quarks, anti-quark conjugates) as specific dark matter candidates.
These were generated in large quantities in the process of mass and energy approaching the cosmic black hole, heating, and then cooling in outer space. Its total amount is usually much higher than the total amount of matter.
Electron-positron conjugates, proton-antiproton conjugates, etc. are referred to herein as dark matter or vanishing masses. These are substances with zero mass energy and volume in three-dimensional space, but they exist in the same volume (mass) in four-dimensional space-time. → Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law
And it only has the ability to distort space and create a gravitational field. Since it has zero mass, it travels at the speed of light, but does not collide with ordinary matter. But they usually affect matter by the gravitational field they create. And you will get the same reaction.
As for the effects of vanishing masses on the origin of the universe, they play a major role in the growth of black holes at the center of galaxies with their ability to create a gravitational field and their ability to travel at the speed of light, and have a major impact on galaxies and their large-scale structures. Gave.
→ Consistency with observed facts(7) Supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy and large-scale structure of the galaxy
8. Elucidation of the mystery of galaxy rotation
When the vanishing mass (dark matter) passes near the nucleus of ordinary matter, its path is bent, so the ordinary matter, which is widely and highly concentrated in the galaxy, causes a zigzag motion. , giving it a gravitational effect. → dark matter behavior
As a result, the rotational motion of galaxies began to move in ways that cannot be explained by Kepler's laws.
Reference: From S.Asada blog
→ Confirmation of agreement with observational facts(8) Unique motion of galaxy rotation
9. An explanation for why our universe consists only of positive matter and no antimatter
In this paper, there is a thing called external space, so there are many possible mechanisms for creating a closed space with only positive substances. But it's probably impossible to pinpoint. Here is an example of one of those possibilities.
For example, if we assume that the cosmic black hole is positively charged, a filter that allows only positive matter to pass through is formed inside the matter generation layer formed around the cosmic black hole, and only positive matter falls down to our outer space. It is hypothesized that a It also explains the mechanism by which positively charged cosmic black holes become more positively charged. See below for details on this
→ Consistency with observed facts(9) Only positive matter is found in our universe
10. About the apparent age of the universe
Distant galaxies are falling at about the same speed as us, so the distance has not changed since ancient times. Distant galaxies are in space that fell before our galaxy . Therefore, it can be said that it is a future figure, but because it takes time for light to reach our galaxy from a distant galaxy, the age difference with our own galaxy will be reduced.
Furthermore, since distant galaxies are redshifted, for example wavelength is 5 times longer, the time progresses only 1/5. Then, the apparent ages of distant galaxies are observed to be considerably younger than those of our own galaxies.In particular, the layer emitting the cosmic background radiation with a redshift of more than 1000 moves at a speed of 1/1000. So it's a pretty early universe.
→ Consistency with observed facts is confirmed(10) The age of distant galaxies is not as young as predicted by Big Bang cosmology.
[Reference] Comparison table between this theory and the big bang cosmology
The big bang theory (expansion cosmology) is forced to match the contradictory observational facts that appear one after another, so the logic is quite unreasonable. On the other hand, this theory does not have blur in a basic story. Accept all observational facts. Do not require new hypotheses.
11. Illustrated explanation: Mechanism of space closing and reversal
We have set up a new page for this content, so please refer to that page.