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## Elucidating the Identity of Dark Matter

The identity of dark matter and proof of its existence

Physics Original Theory Research Series 1  2020/12/26 S.Asada Corrections and additions are made at any time 　　→Japanese edition日本語版

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It is an observational fact that dark matter, an unknown substance that is not observed but has the effect of creating a gravitational field, exists in large quantities in this universe, and that the total amount of it exceeds the total amount of visible stars and galaxies. In this paper, we will elucidate the identity of this dark matter with our own theory, and clarify how it is made and what kind of properties it has.

0. Conclusion

0-1. What creates a gravitational field is matter itself, not "mass or energy"

For the proof of this, see "2. Proof of existence of vanishing mass". It may be slightly different from the Einstein equation, but according to this theory, inertial mass and energy do not have the ability to create a gravitational field (distortion of spacetime). We usually call the property of receiving acceleration or generating inertial force in the gravitational field "inertial mass = gravitational mass" or simply "mass". Furthermore, mass and energy are equivalent in this property (E=Mc^2). In other words, energy has the properties of inertial mass and gravitational mass.

In the conventional standard theory, the gravitational field is a distortion of space-time, and its magnitude is "described by the energy and momentum tensors". Roughly speaking, this means that it is mainly mass energy that creates the gravitational field. In other words, it is the claim that "mass creates a gravitational field and is further accelerated by the gravitational field."

However, according to this theory, the cause of creating a gravitational field is due to another kind of ability that matter itself has, and inertial mass and energy do not have such ability. The property of inertial mass is usually associated with matter, but inertial mass can increase, decrease, or even disappear altogether. Even in such cases, the ability of matter to create a gravitational field remains constant and does not change.

0-2. Phenomenon where matter loses mass

As a phenomenon that is widely recognized as a general theorem (the law of conservation of mass and energy), when substances are bound by gravity or electric force, they always release binding energy. Then, the mass conversion value (ΔM=Ef/c^2) of the binding energy released from the substance decreases.

And as the bond energy becomes larger and larger, a larger bond energy is released accordingly. Then, it would be reasonable to think that the mass of matter may eventually become zero.

0-3. Matter exists even if it loses mass, and the gravitational field it creates does not change

Matter will continue to exist even if the bond energy is released to the limit and the volume and mass become zero. Mass is one of the properties of matter, but there are also states where this becomes zero. Just because mass is zero doesn't mean matter is gone. And the matter continues to retain the ability to create a gravitational field. In the pair annihilation described above, an electron-positron combination with no volume or mass is generated, but the gravitational field created by these does not change before and after the combination.

Gravitational bonding and electrical bonding can certainly occur with bonding energies so huge that the mass becomes zero. Matter that has lost its mass in this way disappears, leaving only the property of creating a gravitational field, and becomes almost unobservable. My argument in this paper is that this is the identity of dark matter.

0-4. Properties and types of dark matter

Specific dark matter candidates include electron-positron conjugates and proton-antiproton conjugates. These have zero volume and mass in three-dimensional space, as explained in detail in "Proposal of Four-Dimensional Volume Conservation Law". For the proof of this, see "2. Proof of existence of vanishing mass".

Since they have no inertial mass, they probably move at the speed of light, and since they have zero volume in three-dimensional space, they usually interact with matter, pass through without colliding, and continue moving at the speed of light. The probability of existence will be widely spread. However, it has the ability to create a gravitational field as an invariant. In other words, it continues to maintain the gravitational field it had before the mass disappearance occurred.

Such microscopic dark matter is so small that individual gravitational fields cannot be observed. However, since there are so many of them, at the cosmic level, they have a great influence on the movement of galaxies and even the formation of the universe.

The above is mass loss due to coupling by electric force, but mass loss due to gravitational coupling between stars is also possible. However, in reality, the masses of two stars are never completely equal, so they will not be completely massless after merging. In addition, when two stars are gravitationally coupled, they become a black hole before they can fully release their binding energy. In that case, the binding energy is also confined in the black hole, so that no further binding energy can be released.

However, a black hole that has lost a large amount of mass due to such gravitational coupling has mass, but has a larger gravitational field than its mass. In other words, even though it has a small mass, it has a much larger gravitational field, so it may be treated as a kind of dark matter.

0-5. Generation and annihilation of electron-positron coupled dark matter

The figure below shows the formation of dark matter by the combination of electrons and positrons. They also show that dark matter can reseparate into electrons and positrons by absorbing high-energy photons. However, dark matter cannot absorb photon energy directly, and this reaction (pair production) occurs stochastically, for example, when it collides with another nucleus and enters a high-energy state.

The figure below shows the formation and disappearance of dark matter. When electrons and positrons combine with their strong electric force, they emit energy equal to their total mass in the form of photons, and themselves become vanishing masses (= dark matter) with zero mass. It has only the effect of creating a gravitational field and wanders through space. And when it absorbs a high-energy photon, it breaks the bond and splits again into an electron and a positron. Bonding is called "pair annihilation" and separation is called "pair creation".

However, the illustration of the movement direction of the particles in the upper figure is not strictly correct. Actually, the law of conservation of momentum is obeyed. By the way, the electron-positron reaction also satisfies both the law of conservation of mass energy and the law of conservation of electric charge, and the gravitational field is also conserved.

The mass of the electron-positron combination = (electron, positron mass) 2 x 0.51 Mev - (emission photon mass) 2 x 0.51 Mev = 0 In other words, the mass of the electron-positron combination is zero. However, it retains the ability to create a gravitational field. This is electron-positron combined dark matter. Dark matter such as proton-antiproton bond type and neutron-antineutron bond type also exist.

0-6. Behavior of dark matter and its effect on galactic motion

When dark matter passes near or through the nuclei of ordinary matter, it is subject to some strong electric forces, temporarily loosening the bonds. If a high-energy photon acts at this moment, it may be absorbed and the bond may be broken to generate a pair. It will also change its course under the influence of electric forces, resulting in a zigzag motion.

Due to the zigzag motion, dark matter is bound for a long period of time in areas with high celestial density such as galaxies. Even if normal matter bends the path of dark matter, it does not affect the behavior of normal matter because dark matter has zero mass energy. However, this is a two-party problem, and the situation is different in many mixed states, and the vanishing mass has a large effect on the behavior of ordinary matter due to the gravitational action. Furthermore, the dark matter group that affects the behavior of ordinary matter receives a reaction from ordinary matter. This action also causes dark matter to be restrained to some extent by galaxies.

In this way, dark matter is bound to the galaxy for a long period of time, and is distributed widely and in high concentration, especially in the outer part of the galaxy. And the gravitational field caused by these can explain the uniform rotation of the galaxy's outer periphery.

In the region near the center of the galaxy, dark matter is trapped by the supermassive black hole at the core, so the dark matter density is lower than in the periphery. The supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy grew rapidly, mainly by absorbing dark matter.

There are restrictions on how black holes can absorb normal matter, making it difficult for them to grow rapidly. A black hole will have a large absorption cross-section for dark matter due to its spatial structure. A black hole that absorbs a lot of dark matter should have a small inertial mass compared to its gravitational force.

1. overview

The behavior of vanishing masses that have completely lost their mass, which I believe to be the identity of dark matter, is interesting. Its proper time has stopped, and its volume, inertial mass, and gravitational mass in three-dimensional space are also zero. Therefore, it travels at the speed of light and usually passes through matter without colliding with it. It is also unaffected by the gravitational field. However, it only has the effect of distorting space and creating a gravitational field.

Reference link → Detailed examination of the behavior of dark matter

I try to prove the existence of such an object by a thought experiment. These proofs are possible within the realm of classical physics (mainly relativity).

2. Proof of existence of dark matter

The main theme here is to prove that matter without mass (dark matter) exists. In particular, we clarify that the property of mass energy and the ability to create a gravitational field are different things.

As a general description of the gravitational field, the Einstein equation describes the source of the gravitational field (distortion of space-time) as an energy/momentum tensor. However, this paper denies this. The reason for this is explained in detail by a thought experiment in the text.

When multiple objects release binding energy -Ef by binding with gravity, electromagnetic force, nuclear force, etc., the mass (ΔM=Ef/c^2) corresponding to the binding energy Ef disappears from the total of the original masses. is a well-known fact and there is no room for doubt.

In order to expand the interpretation of this well-known phenomenon and to verify the results, we will tackle the following themes (1) to (3). Thereby, the above object is achieved.

Theme ①

Assuming a state in which the bond energy is extremely high in the bonding of multiple objects, it is easy to assume that the mass will disappear from the substance. Note that the term "bonding" is not limited to complete coalescence, but also refers to a state in which a bonding force acts in close proximity.

Theme ②

Even if matter releases binding energy and becomes zero mass and volume, matter continues to exist in four-dimensional space-time. It's just that the volume and mass in three-dimensional space are zero because the time axis has grown infinitely.

Reference link → Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law

Theme ③

Mass is equivalent to energy and can be completely removed from matter, but the property of creating a gravitational field is in matter itself and is immutable and inseparable. This property is called gravitational elementary weight here. I think that the invariants of the universe include mass energy, electric charge, and gravitational weight.

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2-1. Proof of existence of dark matter

The mass referred to here (inertial mass or gravitational mass) is a passive property such as receiving inertial force or receiving acceleration in a gravitational field. This does not include the active nature of creating a gravitational field.

For example, since the gravitational acceleration near the ground surface is 9.8m/s^2, a force of 9.8N acts on an object with a mass of 1kg. Mass is equivalent to energy (the famous conversion formula is E=Mc^2), and energy has the same properties as mass. In other words, it receives acceleration in the gravitational field and has inertia. However, I argue that mass and energy have no effect on creating a gravitational field.

2-1-1. Difference from conventional definition

In the conventional definition, the gravitational field has also been regarded as a mass energy, momentum tensor. However, here it was necessary to treat "the property of receiving acceleration by inertial force and gravity field" and "the property of creating a gravitational field" as separate things. Therefore, they are divided into two elements, "mass energy" and "true mass".

A gravitational field is the distortion imposed on space-time by the "true mass". Therefore, objects passing through it move according to the distorted space. In other words, it is not a force that simply acts between objects like nuclear force or electromagnetic force.

2-1-2. Adoption of the term "true mass"

The ability to distort space and create gravitational fields is not associated with inertial mass, energy, or momentum, but rather as an independent property and associated with matter. The term "true mass" is used here to express this property.

[Figure 1] Thought experiment device

2-2. Explanation of the "thought experiment device"

It is assumed that the thought experiment device in [Figure 1] is not affected by external forces such as gravity. Suppose that A and B are massive objects with completely equal masses. A gravitational force acts between A and B. However, A and B are connected by wires to the power generation motor, and the distance cannot be changed unless this rotates. The generator motor referred to here is an ideal converter that reversibly converts rotational energy into electrical energy, and the conversion efficiency is assumed to be 100%.

Operate the generator motor so that A and B approach. The combined energy is then released and the generator motor generates electricity to charge the battery with electrical energy. Conversely, to separate A and B, electric energy can be supplied from the battery to work as a motor, and A and B can be separated.

For simplicity, we assume that these movements are slow and the momentum is negligible. The direction of movement, speed, etc. can be controlled in any way by controlling the amount of energy supplied and released to the generator motor.

2-3. Case where mass energy is completely lost from matter → proof ①

Assuming a state in which the bond energy is extremely high in the bonding of multiple objects, it is easy to assume that the mass will disappear from the substance. Note that the term "bonding" is not limited to complete coalescence, but also refers to a state in which a bonding force acts in close proximity.

For example, suppose that two substances A and B are combined in a gravitational field. It is a well-known fact that the bond energy ΔEf is then released and the mass (ΔM=ΔEf/c^2) corresponding to the energy is reduced from the mass before the bond. →Einstein's conversion formula E=Mc^2

This phenomenon applies not only to gravitational coupling but also to electric force, magnetic force, chemical bond, nuclear force, and so on.

This is explained using the thought experiment device in [Figure 1]. For example, since objects A and B have large masses, they create a large gravitational field, and a strong gravitational force acts on them. A generator motor stops this through a wire. Here, the generator motor is rotated slowly to shorten the distance between A and B, thereby releasing the binding energy and generating electricity, which is stored in the battery.

Then, the mass of A+B decreases by the mass corresponding to the energy transferred to the battery (ΔM=Ef/c^2). Conversely, the mass of the battery is strictly increased by (ΔM=Ef/c^2). This keeps the mass-energy in box ② constant and satisfies the conservation law.

Assuming that the binding energy is extremely large here, it is also assumed that the mass of A and B becomes completely zero by releasing the large binding energy.

It is easily assumed that such extremely large binding energy can be released in the case of binding by gravity and binding by electric force. Mass loss due to gravity is a phenomenon that occurs on a large scale, and mass loss due to electric force is a phenomenon that occurs in the microscopic region.

2-3-1. Mass loss due to gravitational coupling

The binding energy due to gravity has the property that the binding energy increases infinitely as the total mass increases. Therefore, by bringing the objects closer together, the bond energy release reaches the energy conversion value of both masses, and the mass can become zero.

In another example, if a large number of Earth-sized stars are brought close to each other at the same time, there may be a condition where the total binding energy reaches the total mass equivalent value even if they are not in contact with each other. Moreover, the universe as a whole is very low density, but because it is so vast, its total mass is enormous. Therefore, it is known that the total amount of gravitational binding energy and the mass value of the total matter in the universe as a whole are close.

Reference link → Gravitational binding energy

In addition, the condition where the mass becomes zero is close to the condition where it becomes a black hole. Also, complete mass disappearance due to gravity is unlikely in the natural state. Because if the masses of A and B are not exactly equal, the mass after binding will not be zero.

In the case of gravitational coupling, it becomes a black hole in the process of gravitational coupling, and light energy cannot escape. Therefore, the mass energy is trapped and remains. So the loss would be about 50% of the total mass.

2-3-2. Mass loss due to electric force coupling

Electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, neutrons and antineutrons, etc. also have a large electrical binding energy when the distance between their charges becomes extremely short, and it is assumed that the mass becomes zero when this is emitted. In this case, since the absolute values of the mass and charge of both are exactly equal, the mass after binding can be exactly zero.

*Binding energy between charges Ef≒9×10^9×Q1×Q2÷r^2 (r is the distance between charges Q1-Q2)- - - - This has the same form as the gravitational binding energy formula

According to a simple calculation, the distance between the charges at which the mass becomes zero after this combination is about 10^-15 m in the case of an electron and a positron. In the case of protons, antiprotons, neutrons, and antineutrons, it seems a little complicated because they have an internal structure, but there is a distance between charges where the mass becomes zero. In the case of neutrons and antineutrons, the internal structure (quark level) has an electric charge similar to that of protons, and it is possible that they lose mass due to electrical coupling. → Confirmed in practice → (Example) electron-positron reaction, proton-antiproton reaction

In the case of protons and antiprotons, it is not known whether they are combined in their original form or dispersed as quarks and anti-quark combinations. However, since pairing occurs, it is highly likely that the nuclei are not bound together in separate quark units, but are bound together in the form of protons and antiprotons, resulting in mass annihilation.

Furthermore, by combining unstable quarks, antiquarks, etc., it becomes a vanishing mass with zero mass, and by stopping the proper time, it can become a permanent life.

Considering the case of electric coupling in the above [Fig. 1], the attractive force F becomes an electric force. Since the extracted energy is equivalent to mass, it has the properties of mass (inertial mass, gravitational mass), but does not have the property of creating a gravitational field. Objects A and B have the property of creating a gravitational field.

2-4. Matter and the gravitational field continue to exist even if the mass becomes zero → Proof 2

Matter continues to exist in four-dimensional space-time even if it releases its binding energy and becomes zero in mass and volume. It's just that the volume and mass in three-dimensional space are zero because the time axis has grown infinitely.

Reference link → Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law

It is not mass or energy that creates the gravitational field. It is matter, and the ability of matter to create a gravitational field is proportional to its volume in four-dimensional spacetime.

In the previous proof, I came to the conclusion that the combined mass of substances A and B can become zero, but even if the combined mass of A and B becomes zero, A and B still exist. It's not that I stopped doing it. Even if the three-dimensional volume (mass) of matter becomes zero, the four-dimensional volume is preserved and the gravitational field does not change. We prove it below.

2-4-1. Reversibility of Mass Disappearance Phenomena

Even if A and B release their binding energy in the thought experiment device of [Figure 1] and their masses decrease infinitely, this process is reversible. If electric energy is supplied from the battery and the generator motor winds up the wires and separates A and B, the original masses of A and B will be restored.

In order to explain the essence of this phenomenon in an easy-to-understand manner, let us assume that the objects are human beings, Person A and Person B, who have individuality and have complex and delicate structures. When Mr. A and Mr. B are gravitationally coupled, gravitational coupling energy is released. Then, the mass of the two people decreases by the energy released, and the energy is converted into electrical energy by the generator through the wire and stored in the battery.

The mass of the battery increases by that amount and satisfies the law of conservation of mass and energy in box ②. For the validity of this law of conservation, see "3. Consideration of the Law of Conservation of Inertial Mass and Gravitational Field" at the end of this article.

At first glance, it seems that Mr. A and Mr. B have moved to the battery, but since it is reversible, if you supply electricity to the generator motor and wind it up, it will return to the original Mr. A and Mr. B. Humans cannot easily be assembled from electrical energy, so we must think carefully about the meaning of reversibility.

Even if the mass decreases or disappears, the matter of Mr. A and Mr. B always existed in Box ①. Because there is no change in the coordinates of Mr. A and Mr. B. Their mass does not change from their point of view. It is a mass transfer and disappearance phenomenon from the perspective of an external observer. Even if you think in terms of physical common sense, it is impossible for the substances that make up Mr. A and Mr. B to escape from Box ① through the rope. Only energy can escape through the rope.

Also suppose that the energy is transferred to the battery and the mass in box ① approaches zero. If the gravitational field is caused by mass, then the gravitational field in box 1 will also approach zero. If that happens, even if you try to pull Mr. A and Mr. B apart, the gravitational force will be close to zero, so the energy from the battery will hardly flow back. In other words, the mass of Mr. A and Mr. B will not be recovered, and the reversibility is lost. This is physically impossible.

Therefore, the gravitational field is not produced by mass energy, but by the "true mass" of the substances A and B. Neither mass nor energy creates a gravitational field. And energy is equivalent to mass and has inertial mass and gravitational mass.

2-4-2. Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law to explain mass disappearance

The phenomenon that occurs to Mr. A and Mr. B can be explained by the shape change in the four-dimensional space-time. It is reasonable to think that the 4-dimensional volume x, y, z, t is preserved in the 4-dimensional space-time. When a large amount of bond energy is released by bonding, x, y, and z (=mass) are reduced so as to satisfy the conservation law in three-dimensional space, and corresponding energy is generated.

As x, y, and z are reduced so as to satisfy the law of conservation in four-dimensional space-time, the time axis t extends and the four-dimensional volume becomes constant, satisfying the law of conservation of four-dimensional volume. This means time is delayed.

To explain this with humans, when a large amount of binding energy is released, x, y, and z seen from an external observer, that is, the volume and mass are observed to decrease, and t becomes longer, that is, the lifetime is observed to become longer. .

Ultimately, the three-dimensional volume and mass become zero, the time axis extends infinitely, and the proper time stops.

However, from their point of view (coordinates), their mass and time are normal and there is no change. This is only from the point of view of an outside observer.

Reference link → Proposal of four-dimensional volume conservation law

2-4-3. Mass loss and time delay appearing in all binding energy emission phenomena

It is well known that time slows down when the mass is reduced by releasing the binding energy in the gravitational field. However, according to this thesis, this is not limited to the gravitational field, and I argue that the disappearance of mass and the time delay occur as a set in phenomena that release binding energy such as electric force, nuclear force, and all other phenomena.

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2-5. Mass accompanies energy, gravitational field accompanies matter → proof ③

Mass is equivalent to energy and can be completely removed from matter, but matter has the property of creating a gravitational field, which is immutable and inseparable. This property is called "true mass" here. We believe that the invariants of the universe include mass energy, electric charge, and true mass.

2-5-1. Proposed law of conservation of mass and gravitational field

Let us now consider the situation in Box ① in Figure 1. From here, energy can go in and out with wires, so there is no problem with the mass and energy in Box ① changing. However, since nothing goes in and out of Box 2, there should be no change in Box 2 as seen from the outside no matter what happens inside (conservation law should hold). This is the mass, the gravitational field, and the electric charge.

However, since there are positive and negative charges, if the distance between the two is extremely close, the electric field will not reach the outside. But the charge continues to exist.

2-5-2. Whereabouts of the mass lost by the combination of A and B and whereabouts of the gravitational field

The discussion proceeds on the premise that the above conservation law holds. Consider a phenomenon in which when persons A and B approach each other, they release bond energy and their masses decrease. The reduced mass leaves Box ① in the form of mechanical energy through wires, is converted into electrical energy by the generator motor, and is stored in the battery.

Here, in order to satisfy the above conservation law, all of the mass decreased in box ① must be an increase in the mass of the battery. In other words, all the lost mass becomes energy. It has a mass exactly equal to its energy reduced mass (M=E/c^2).

This is regardless of the form of energy. The same is true for light energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy. This is because no matter how the energy is transmitted from objects A and B to the battery, the result will not change. Also, energy storage need not be limited to electricity, and various forms of energy storage do not affect the results. The same is true for devices that store light energy over long distances. Therefore, the photon also has a mass of hν/C^2. But light has no "true mass".

Even if Mr. A and Mr. B combine and release energy and the mass decreases or becomes close to zero, if they are separated again by the power generation motor, they will return to Mr. A and Mr. B who have the original mass and individuality (there is reversibility) .

2-5-3. Rejection of the myth (theory that the gravitational field is energy and momentum tensor)

If the energy (mass) transferred to this battery had the ability to create a gravitational field, as Einstein's equations say, then the gravitational field would be transferred to the battery, which would be completely wrong. If so, when the mass of Mr. A and Mr. B decreases, the gravitational field will also become smaller, and it will become impossible to extract energy gradually.

In that case, even if they are separated by a power generation motor, the attractive force between them is weak, so sufficient energy is not supplied, and Mr. A and Mr. B are simply separated. Then the energy does not flow back and cannot return to the original state. Mass remains reduced. In other words, it becomes irreversible.

But this would be wrong according to the common sense of the laws of physics. The only things that are irreversible in physical phenomena are the progress of time and the increase in entropy, and this case is a typical reversible change. If such an irreversible change were to occur, people would have to lose weight as they went up and down in the elevator. decrease the number of cells? Do cells get smaller? change personality? physically impossible.

2-5-4. Whereabouts of gravitational field → attached to matter

Then, correctly, the gravitational field must remain inside box ① without moving. From this, it can be concluded that the nature and ability to create a gravitational field are associated with Mr. A and Mr. B. The property and ability to create this gravitational field are called "true mass" here. Conventionally, "true mass" has been treated as the same thing as mass energy, but here we treat it as an independent active property.

An object that has completely lost energy and mass can create a gravitational field, but since it has no mass, it will not receive force from other gravitational fields. "True mass" is the property and ability to create a constant gravitational field attached to an object. And the "true mass" is equal to the mass of matter that does not emit any binding energy.

Although the above proofs have mainly discussed gravitational coupling, similar conclusions can be drawn for charges. Here we consider the charge case in detail.

In the case of gravity, the ability to create a gravitational field and mass were conventionally identified as the same, so the concept of "true mass" was brought up to correct this. is separated from the mass from the beginning, the problem is simple.

Substances (electrons, protons, etc.) contain electric charges, and strong electric forces act between electrons and positrons, for example. It is easily assumed that the mass of the electron-positron will decrease if this electric binding energy is released, and that the mass will become zero if the binding energy increases further.

This is the same conclusion as for gravity. However, in the case of electrons, the experimental apparatus shown in [Fig.1] cannot be applied strictly. Attaching wires to electrons is out of scope for thought experiments. The binding energy cannot be extracted continuously, so it needs to be treated with quantum mechanics. However, the basic idea is the same as for gravity. The law of conservation of mass energy, the law of conservation of gravitational field, and the law of conservation of electric charge are also applied.

2-6-1. Mass loss due to electron-positron coupling

Empirically, electrons and positrons approach each other and release their binding energy by emitting photons (gamma rays). However, this emission is not performed continuously at any time, but two photons of 0.51 Mev equivalent to the mass conversion value of electrons and positrons are emitted and instantly combined.

The electron-positron pair that released the binding energy becomes zero in volume x-y-z and mass in three-dimensional space, and seemingly ceases to exist. However, it continues to exist in 4D spacetime, and continues to have the ability to create a gravitational field. In addition, although the electric charge does not disappear, the electric force is canceled because the positive and negative equal charges are contained in the zero volume in the three-dimensional space, and the electric charge and the electric field cannot be observed from the outside by normal methods.

In the previous proof, we proved that mass and energy do not have the ability to create a gravitational field. Become.

We presume that this space contains a large number of "electron:positron pairs", "proton:antiproton pairs", "neutron:antineutron pairs" or "quark:antiquark pairs" that have lost their mass. These are not observed because they have zero volume and mass in three-dimensional space, but they have the ability to create a gravitational field, so the effect of this is likely to appear strongly, for example, in the rotation of the Milky Way. To explain the state of motion of most of the hundreds of billions of galaxies that have been confirmed so far, it is necessary to assume that such objects (dark matter) exist in greater quantities than ordinary matter.

A huge black hole has also been observed in the early universe, but it is difficult for ordinary matter to accumulate on such a large scale in a short period of time. However, dark matter, which has no mass, travels at the speed of light, so it may have accumulated in the black hole in a short period of time and made its gravitational field enormous.

Along with that, normal matter and light energy were absorbed and accumulated, and the mass became huge. This effect also caused galaxies to grow rapidly.

2-6-2. Reseparation of electron-positron combination (pair production)

In vanishing mass bodies such as electron-positron conjugates, the charge is preserved, but since the distance between both charges is almost zero, the charges cancel each other out, and the influence of the electric field to the outside is almost eliminated. but not strictly zero. Therefore, under special conditions, this charge pair may reveal its properties.

For example, when it passes near the nucleus, it may change course or receive energy under the influence of the strong electric field. When a high-energy photon or the like acts under these conditions, it receives energy from it, breaks the bond, and creates an electron-positron pair.

Here again, it is different from the idea of Mr. Dirac and others, but it can not be helped. I attach great importance to the laws of conservation of mass energy, electric charge and gravitational field.

2-7. Experimental proof method

A familiar example is iron, which is the most stable atom (having the highest binding energy), and is lighter than the sum of the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make it by the binding energy of the nucleus. Since the sum of the masses of elementary particles is the gravitational elementary mass, iron is the substance with the largest difference between the gravitational elementary mass and the inertial mass. If the gravitational field created by 1 kg of such a substance and 1 kg of a substance with relatively small binding energy such as hydrogen is precisely measured, iron will have a slightly larger gravitational field.

Combining an electron and a positron produces 0.51 MeV x 2 photons and a mass-zero (electron-positron combination). If we can catch this, the validity of this theory will be proved. However, since it has zero mass, it moves at the speed of light, and since it has zero three-dimensional volume, it can pass through substances, making it difficult to detect. It's probably only detectable by the gravitational field it creates, but it's extremely small.

3. Consideration: Conservation Law of Inertial Mass and Gravitational Field

The theoretical development in this paper is based on the premise that the conservation law holds that the inertial mass and the gravitational field measured from the outside of Box 2 will not change no matter what reaction occurs in Box 2, which has no ingress and egress from the outside. I have to. If this is correct, the conclusion here should be correct. But if not, the conclusion here would be a big mistake.

But if we assume that this conservation law is wrong, another big problem arises. For example, in the thought experiment device in Figure 1, suppose that the mass does not change even if the battery is charged. Consider the case where the conservation law does not hold.

First, move A and B closer and farther apart in box ①. If the generator motor or anything else is 100% efficient, no external energy supply is required for this operation.

Then, when looking at box ② from the outside, it is observed that the mass is changing. For example, if you put this on the ground, the weight will change repeatedly.

If there is such a thing, for example, if it is placed on a spring, it will repeatedly move up and down. Then you can generate electricity with that movement. In other words, an infinite amount of energy can be extracted from nothing. This is a perpetual motion machine of the first kind and violates the first law of thermodynamics. At this stage, we can completely deny this as "impossible".

In other words, the conservation law that the mass does not change when there is no going in and out of the box ② must be strictly established. Then we can conclude that the proof of the existence of dark matter, which we concluded in this paper, is also correct.

In addition, it is concluded that the conservation law that the gravitational field does not change is also correct in the same process. For example, if the pair annihilation and pair generation of electrons and positrons causes their gravitational fields to vanish and generate, the result would be to allow the existence of a perpetual motion machine of the first kind, and the idea is strongly denied. .

To explain this in detail, it is possible to assume an equilibrium state in which pair annihilation and pair generation occur repeatedly even if there is no input or output of energy in the box. If annihilation causes the gravitational field to disappear, the gravitational field of the box will change. Then, when a spring is placed on top of it and a substance is placed, the substance repeats up and down motion. Then, energy can be extracted from it, and it becomes a perpetual motion machine of the first kind. Therefore, such a thing cannot happen. In other words, even if they annihilate, we can conclude that their gravitational field does not change.

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